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Ranko Mladina, Neven Skitarelić, Cemal Cingi and Nuray Bayar Muluk

Abstract

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this article is to highlight some terms which have been ingrained in the rhinosinusology literature.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. It regards the term “accessory ostium” and the term “septal deviation”. The well-known and deeply ingrained term “accessory ostium” has been widely used for decades, but essentially it is absolutely incorrect. “Septal deviation” is an inadequate term for the changes of the nasal septum form.

RESULTS. From the linguistic point of view, “accessory” means something (or someone) which (or who) helps someone or gives support (to something or someone) in some process. We recommend the use of the term “defect of the fontanel” instead of “accessory ostium”. The use of the term “septal deformity” (from Latin: de forma, meaning the change in the shape) is etymologically much more appropriate. Septal deformities appear in man in several, well defined shapes and, therefore, can be correctly classified. The classification contributes to the further scientific conversations regarding the clinical issues connected to the changes of the nasal septum form.

CONCLUSION. The usual term “accessory ostium” suggests almost a normal finding on the lateral nasal wall, but, on the contrary, it clearly signalizes that the respective maxillary sinus is chronically inflamed. The usual term “septal deviation” is not at all specific and only suggests that something is wrong with the position of the nasal septum. It does not at all imply any of the six well known types of septal deformities in man.

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Andrea Éltető and Katalin Antalóczy

Abstract

As a consequence of the international crisis in 2008-2009, the role of exports in economic growth came into focus in most countries. Exports of EU Member States gained momentum from 2010 onward but with certain changes in their structure and direction. In several countries, the turn towards non-EU areas, such as China or Latin America was part of the state export strategy. On the one hand, our article describes these foreign trade strategies and their institutional framework of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European governments, detecting possible similarities. On the other hand, we analyse recent export data. This way we can get a picture on the structure and direction of exports of periphery economies and this can be compared to the aims of the given states. Our hypothesis is that there is a gap between the reality and the intentions of the governments. The size of this gap varies and is influenced by certain factors such as the different involvement of multinational companies in foreign trade or the different economic structure of these countries. In our paper we list which countries adopted a government strategy and with what aim. We provide a short literature review on state trade promotion policies and discuss these policies and their institutions in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian countries.

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Andrzej Wicher

Abstract

Two of the tales mentioned in the title are in many ways typical of the great collections of stories (The Canterbury Tales and Il Decamerone) to which they belong. What makes them conspicuous is no doubt the intensity of the erotic desire presented as the ultimate law which justifies even the most outrageous actions. The cult of eroticism is combined there with a cult of youth, which means disaster for the protagonists, who try to combine eroticism with advanced age. And yet the stories in question have roots in a very different tradition in which overt eroticism is punished and can only reassert itself in a chastened form, its transformation being due to sacrifices made by the lover to become reunited with the object of his love. A medieval example of the latter tradition is here the Middle English romance, Sir Orfeo. All of the three narratives are conspicuously connected by the motif of the enchanted tree. The Middle Ages are associated with a tendency to moralize ancient literature, the most obvious example of which is the French anonymous work Ovide moralisé (Moralized Ovid), and its Latin version Ovidius Moralizatus by Pierre Bersuire. In the case of The Merchant’s Tale and The Tale of the Enchanted Pear-Tree, we seem to meet with the opposite process, that is with a medieval demoralization of an essentially didactic tradition. The present article deals with the problem of how this transformation could happen and the extent of the resulting un-morality. Some use has also been made of the possible biblical parallels with the tales in question.

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Ion Petrică and Mihaela Tomiţa

Abstract

Considered a fundamental element of human existence, communication has been used since ancient times for the purpose of “transmitting something to the others also”. Although the term of “communication” has Latin origin, the first practical preoccupations for this issue are found in the Ancient Greeks’ works and were related to oratory which, in its turn, was promoted as “art of the word”. Even if in the literature the notion of “communication” was defined in a complex manner, being assigned numerous valences. Theoreticians found that, on the level of human communication, two common elements clearly appear for each of the meanings of this term. Thus, on the one hand, communication is perceived as a true process of information transmission, and on the other hand no human action, irrespective of the level of its realisation, can be conceived outside this process. Beyond the completion of the main theoretical models for the phenomena of organisational communication, the present article attempts to forward the author's personal diagnosis of a child protection institution, more precisely the General Division for Social Work/Assistance and Child Protection Caraş-Severin (DGASPC), valuing a wide-range methodology (analysis of social documents, interview, and structured observation). Thus, by combining the quantitative endeavour with the qualitative one, we highlighted the existence of a formal ascendant vertical communication, opposed or complementary to the descendant vertical one characterising most of Romanian organisational practices. The special institutional specificity of DGASPC turns this organisational territory into a possible model of interpersonal relationing, different from the general specificity existing in Romanian public institutions where the boss dictates.

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Malwina Kępka

References Barczyński, Janusz. Narracja i tendencja. O opowieściach tendencyjnych Elizy Orzeszkowej. Ossolineum, 1976. Chevigny, Bell Gale. “The Transformation of Privilege in the work of Elena Poniatowska”. Latin American Literature Review, vol. 13, no. 26, 1985, pp. 49-62. Davis, Lisa. “An Invitations Poor Women of the America. The color purple and Hasta no verte Jesús mío”. Reinventing the Americas Comparative Studies of Literature of the United States and Spanish America, edited by Bell Gale Chevigny and

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Karolina Chosińska, Leszek Duduś and Zbigniew Jakubiec

LITERATURE Berthold P., Mohr G. 2008 – Dokarmianie ptaków – rozpoznawanie, wabienie, ochrona. Muza. Warszawa. Doerr T.B., Silvy N.J. 2002 – Effects of supplemental feeding on northern bobwhite populations in south Texas. Pages 233-240 in S. J. DeMaso, W.P. Kuvlesky, Jr., F. Hernandez, and M.E. Berger, eds. Quail V: Proceedings of the Fifth National Quail Symposium. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX, USA. Graszka-Petrykowski D. 2008 – Ptaki w twoim ogrodzie, praktyczny przewodnik. KDC Bauer-Weltbild Media sp. z.o.o. Warszawa

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Abu Shahid Abdullah

References Ahmad, M. & Afsar, A. (2014). Magical Realism, Social Protest and Anti-Colonial Sentiments in One Hundred Years of Solitude : An Instance of Historiographic Metafiction. Asian Journal of Latin American Studies, 27 (2), 1-26. Bell-Villada, G. H. (1990). García Márquez: The Man and His Work. University of North Carolina Press. Bowers, M. A. (2004). Magic(al) Realism. London and New York: Routledge. Conniff, B. (2002). The Dark Side of Magical Realism: Science, Oppression, and Apocalypse in One Hundred Years of Solitude . In

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Olga Timofeeva

/Boston: Brill. Hunter Blair, Peter. 1990. The world of Bede. Reissue with corrections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jones, Christopher A. 2009. Ælfric and the limits of ‘Benedictine Reform’. In Hugh Magennis & Mary Swan (eds.), A companion to Ælfric, 67-108. (Brill’s Companions to the Christian Tradition 18.) Leiden/Boston: Brill. Lapidge, Michael. 1975. The hermeneutic style in tenth-century Anglo-Latin literature. Anglo- Saxon England 4. 67-111. Lapidge, Michael. 1988. The study of Greek at the school

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Justyna Rogos-Hebda

1 This paper is based on the author’s post-doctoral project “Latin abbreviations in Middle English literary manuscripts: evolution of forms and functions” (UMO-2012/05/B/HS2/03996), supported by Polish National Science Centre. REFERENCES PRIMARY SOURCES British Library MS Royal D II 18 < http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?-ref=Royal_MS_18_d_ii > SECONDARY SOURCES Carroll, Ruth, Matti Peikola, Hanna Salmi, Mari-Lisa Varila, Janne Skaffari & Risto Hiltunen. 2013. Pragmatics on the Page. Visual text in late medieval English books

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Joanna Matyjaszczyk

W orks C ited Bestul, Thomas. Texts of the Passion: Latin Devotional Literature and Medieval Society . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1996. Print. Chazan, Robert. “The Deteriorating Image of the Jews: Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Christendom and Its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000–1500 . Ed. Scott L. Waugh and Peter D. Diehl. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 220–33. Print. “Christ on the Road to Emmaus; Doubting Thomas.” The Chester Mystery Cycle . Ed. R. M. Lumiansky and David Mills. London: Oxford UP, 1974