projects worth more than EUR 50 million were carried out in the year under review. These included the construction of the National Forum of Music in Wrocław, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Warsaw and the Podlasie Opera in Białystok – the only venue of its type in north-eastern Poland. After the completion of the largest investments, others are appearing in other regions. Therefore, it is the most time-varying feature among those analysed.
In the period in question, there was no correlation between the GDPpercapita of regions in Poland and the size of the
tourism demand (i.e. the number of international arrivals percapita ) and the number of world natural and cultural heritage sites, ethnic diversity, GDPpercapita , and indicators of good governance. Similarly to our methodology, they used the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum for data on World Heritage sites for 2011, and carried out a multiple regression analysis to establish a relationship between WHS numbers and the tourist arrivals percapita for the analysed countries. They also included ethnic diversity as an explanatory
Will EU Cohesion Policy Deliver on the Lisbon Strategy?
John Bachtler and Irene McMaster
33 percent. There was an apparent partial relationship between levels of regional prosperity and levels of spending on Lisbon; for some of the more undeveloped regions, Lisbon-type interventions were considered less important than spending on basic infrastructure.
Structural Funds allocations relevant to Lisbon objectives
Share of funding relevant for Lisbon objectives, in %
GDPpercapita In PPS, 2001, EU15 = 100
Finland – Satakunta
France – Aquitaine
Denmark – Bornholm
Adam Senetra, Agnieszka Szczepańska and Monika Wasilewicz-Pszczółkowska
The development of housing, services and industry as well as the accompanying infrastructure leads to the intensification of urbanisation processes and changes in land use structure. The area of land characterised by urban use is increasing. The above trend is also observed in Eastern Poland despite its predominantly rural character and the absence of metropolitan areas exerting great pressure on the local landscape, contributing to regional development and enhancing the region’s competitiveness. The paper discusses changes in land use structure in developed and urban areas in Eastern Poland. The analysis includes five Polish voivodeships (Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie) characterised by the lowest GDP per capita in the EU-25. For this reason, Eastern Poland will receive aid as part of the ‘Development of Eastern Poland’ Operational Program 2007-2013. This is the only supra-regional program in the European Union which promotes social and economic growth in underdeveloped regions by co-financing projects in urban development, road construction and tourism promotion. The analysis of changes in the share of developed and urban areas in total land area as well as changes in local land use structure (subgroups) covers the period of 2007-2013. The data relating to land use structure was supplied by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. It was used to determine the scale and rate of urbanisation in the analysed voivodeships (regions) and their constituent poviats (counties) with special emphasis on suburban areas. The results were presented in the form of cartograms and thematic maps with the use of GIS tools. The GIS tools support the visualisation of the spatial distribution of the analysed phenomena.
Benny Geys, Friedrich Heinemann and Alexander Kalb
,000 inhabitants are deemed most efficient (details available upon request). One key driving force behind this relative inefficiency of especially the smallest municipalities appears to be their greater inability to exploit economies of scale in the provision of public goods. Indeed, smaller municipalities in Baden-Württemberg operate under conditions where the cost of public provisions increases significantly more slowly than one-to-one with population size increases. In other words, costs percapita would reduce by increasing the average scale of production. As also shown in
Anton Michálek, Peter Podolák and Michala Sládeková Madajová
and Policy , 8(2): 23-37.
Michálek, A. and Podolák, P. 2013: Theoretical framework for the selection of social indicators characterising regional disparities. In: Revue Roumaine de Géographie , 57(2): 119-128.
Noteworthy Statistics, 2013: Regional Disparities in GDPperCapita in the EU after the Financial Crisis . (LE) London Economics Publication Working Papers and Economic Briefs. Available at: http://londoneconomics.co.uk/blog/publication/regional-disparities-ingdp-per-capita-in-the-eu-after-the-financial-crisis/ , DoA: 2.2.2015.
Kikuchi, G., 2010: Neighborhood Structures and Crime A Spatial Analysis, El Paso: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.
Krämer, A., Khan, M.H. and Kraas, F., 2011: Health in Megacities and Urban Areas, New York: Springer.
Le Gallo, J. and Ertur, C., 2000: Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis of the distribution of regional percapitaGDP in Europe, 1980-1995. In: Small , 82, pp. 175-201.
Lembo, A.J., 2007: Spatial Autocorrelation - Join Count Analysis, Ithaca: Cornell University.
Loftin, C. and Ward, S.K., 1983