The aim of the article is to identify the main tendencies in the dynamics of interregional disparities in the level of socio-economic development in Russia during periods of economic growth and crisis. These trends have been identified on the basis of an analysis of the regional coefficient of asymmetry of key per-capita indicators (GDP, investment in fixed capital etc.) as well as indicators of spatial concentration in Russia and deviations from the average (for GDP, per capita GDP and investments) at the federal district and regional levels. The main factors driving the dynamics of these disparities were the economic crisis, government anti-crisis measures and measures of social support. Comparison of the level of interregional disproportions in Russia and abroad indicated that the differences between levels of socio-economic development at the federal level are comparable with differences in EU countries, but at the level of regions - with countries of the world.
al. (2014). Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet, 384(9947): 957-79.
World Bank. (2014). Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) [Online]. Available: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT?end=2013&locations=MLGN&start=1990 [Accessed 10 August 2017].
Zelleke, G., Sraiheen, A., & Gupta, K. (2013). Human capital, productivity, and economic growth in 31 sub-saharan african countries for the period
Daniel Kwabena Twerefou, Frank Adusah-Poku and William Bekoe
The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and economic growth. In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, there exist scanty studies that confirm or otherwise the EKC hypothesis with regards to CO2 emissions as well as the factors that drive CO2 emissions. This work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by addressing these two major questions using data from 1970 to 2010 and the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Testing approach. The results rather suggest a U-shaped relationship between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions per capita indicating the non-existence of the EKC hypothesis for CO2 in Ghana. This implies that further increase in per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will only be associated with increase in CO2 emissions as the income per capita turning point of about $624 at constant 2000 prices occurred between 1996 and 1997. Furthermore, our results reveal energy consumption and trade openness are positive long run drivers of CO2 emissions. It is therefore recommended that the enhancement of trade liberalization policies should ensure the use of cleaner technologies and products while investment in cleaner energy alternatives could help reduce CO2 emissions. We also recommend the implementation of the Low Carbon Development Strategy which integrates development and climate change mitigation actions.
This article analyzes comparative price levels of 10 new EU member countries from Central, East, and South-East Europe and discusses their main determinants. A comparison of comparative price levels is logically followed by a comparison of relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Further, the Balassa-Samuelson efect is theoretically explained and empirically tested using a sample of EU27 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The results of simple regression analysis confrm that diferences in comparative price levels can be explained by the diferences in relative GDP per capita in purchasing power parities. Besides the Balassa-Samuelson efect there are, however, many other factors that have an impact on comparative price levels. Tey are related to the lower competitiveness of domestic companies on international markets as the result of such factors as a lower quality of production, inefcient organizational structures and management styles, insufcient marketing and business skills, or a poor approach to international distribution channels.
Andriy Stavytskyy, Vincent Giedraitis, Darius Sakalauskas and Maik Huettinger
This paper investigates the historical trends in economic development through the impact of economic depressions and emissions of greenhouse gasses, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). The analysis includes four countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. The focus, therefore, will be on the impact of two economic crises and their effect on global warming. Temperature changes in the longer period are very often regarded as a result of human activity, which can be measured by the increase of GDP (per capita). The findings indicate that GDP (per capita) parameters cannot be considered as correct measures of human pollution activity. The results show that the long-run temperature can be evaluated with the help of annual average temperatures of the previous four years. The proposed model does not only provide quite satisfactory forecasts, but is very stable with coefficients variables that can make a model more reliable for practice.
The main aim of this paper is to present the concept of regional distance as a measure of economic diversity at the regional level. Additionally, the paper is devoted to the identification of regional inequalities in Poland, based on the metric presented. Estimates of the regional distance between specific regions (NUTS 2) and the mean level of development of the national economy or Mazowieckie Voivodship (the region with the highest GDP per capita in Poland) were based on calculations conducted using logarithmic equations. Two different distances were calculated: (a) the mean number of years required to achieve the present reference area level of development, (b) the mean number of years necessary to achieve the reference area GDP per capita, taking into consideration the growth rate of the reference area. The empirical example of regional distance application revealed significant inequalities between regions of Poland at NUTS 2 level.
(% of GDP) . Available at https://www.finance.gov.mk/en/node/2678 [10 May 2018].
15. Nayab, H. (2015). The Relationship between Budget Deficit and Economic Growth of Pakistan. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development , Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 85-90.
16. Saleh, A. S. (2003). The Budget Deficit and Economic Performance: A Survey. Department of Economics, University of Wollongong , Working Paper 03-12, pp. 1-56. Available at http://ro.uow.edu.au/commwkpapers/78 [10 May 2018].
17. National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia (2017). Basic
Miha Marič, Jasmina Žnidaršič, Miha Uhan, Vlado Dimovski, Marko Ferjan, Maja Djurica, Mitja Jeraj and Matej Janežič
Thurik, A. R. (2003). Entrepreneurship and unemployment in the UK. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 50 (3), 264-290, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2F1467-9485.5003001
Thurik, A. R., Carree, M. A., van Stel, A. & Audretsch, D. B. (2008). Does self-employment reduce unemployment? Journal of Business Venturing, 23 (6), 673-686, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jbusvent.2008.01.007
Van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. (2009). The GDP paradox. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30 (2), 117-135, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j
The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices) on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.
The aim of the paper is to apply the spatio-temporal Environmental Kuznets Curve (SpEKC) to test the relationship between economic growth and the amount of collected mixed municipal waste. The analysis was conducted at the level of sixty-six Polish sub-regions. The study contained selected environmental indicators. The dependent variable - the amount of municipal waste generated in kilograms per capita characterized the state of the environment. The GDP per capita in constant prices (as an explanatory variable) presented the level of economic development of the sub-regions. In the empirical part of the research there were used spatial panel data models based on EKCs. It determined the levels of economic development, at which the amount of produced wastes has fallen or increased, depending on the wealth of the region. The application of different types of spatial weight matrices was an important element of this modelling. Data obtained the years 2005-2012. Models were estimated in the RCran package.