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Vibrational, electrical, dielectric and optical properties of PVA-LiPF6 solid polymer electrolytes

Abstract

Solid polymer electrolytes based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with LiPF6 have been prepared using solution casting technique. Electrical properties of prepared electrolyte films were analyzed using AC impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing salt concentration. The maximum conductivity of 8.94 × 10−3 S·cm−1 was obtained at ambient temperature for the film containing 20 mol% of LiPF6. The conductivity enhancement was correlated to the enhancement of available charge carriers. The formation of a complex between the polymer and salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The optical nature of the polymer electrolyte films was analyzed through UV-Vis spectroscopy.

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Growth, electrical, thermal, mechanical and etching studies on 4-chloroanilinium hydrogen (2R, 3R)-tartrate monohydrate-an organic NLO single crystal

Abstract

An organic single crystal of 4-chloroanilinium hydrogen (2R,3R)-tartrate monohydrate (4CAHT) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Single crystal XRD study confirmed that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with the space group P21. Powder XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the compound. The presence of various functional groups in the compound was revealed by FT-IR analysis. UV studies showed the absence of absorption in the entire visible region. To determine the thermal stability of the grown crystals it was subjected to thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Microhardness and etching studies were also carried out for the crystal. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency of 4CAHT was tested by Kurtz and Perry powder technique and the relative SHG efficiency of 4CAHT was found to be 1.44 times greater than that of standard KDP.

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Structural analysis and dielectric relaxation mechanism of conducting polymer/volcanic basalt rock composites

Abstract

In this work, polypyrrole and polythiophene conducting polymers (CPs) have been synthesized and doped with volcanic basalt rock (VBR) in order to improve their dielectric properties for technological applications. The structure and morphology of the composites with different VBR doping concentrations were characterized by FT-IR and SEM analyses. The best charge storage ability was achieved for maximum VBR doping concentration (50.0 wt.%) for both CPs. Dielectric relaxation types of the composites were determined as non-Debye type due to non-zero absorption coefficient and observation of semicircles whose centers were below Z′ axis at the Nyquist plots. It was also ascertained that VBR doping makes the molecular orientation easier than for non-doped samples and reduced energy requirement of molecular orientation. In addition, AC conductivity was totally masked by DC conductivity for all samples at low frequency.

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Growth, characterization and optical properties of potassium iodide (KI) doped potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) single crystals for optoelectronic applications

Abstract

Potassium iodide (KI) doped potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique using millipore water as a solvent. The grown single crystals were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and the analysis confirmed that KI-doped KHP crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group Pca21. The functional groups were identified by FT-IR technique which showed slight shift in vibrational frequencies, indicating inclusion of dopant into the crystal lattice. The UV-Vis spectral studies revealed the optical transparency of the doped crystals in the entire visible region. The optical band gap values were estimated from Tauc plots. Kurtz-Perry powder test was employed for second harmonic generation efficiency studies of the grown crystals.

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Facile chemical strategy to synthesize Ag@polypyrrole microarrays and investigating its anisotropic effect on polymer conductivity

Abstract

A facile chemical approach was developed to fabricate microarrays (MAs) of Ag@polypyrrole nanocables (NCs). The strategy involved crosslinking the NCs by tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) under continuous pulse sonication without using a substrate. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with EDX, which revealed the longitudinal interconnections within the nanocables and creating unidirectional alignment in the form of MAs. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize the encapsulating polymer as polypyrrole (ppy) around Ag nanowires (NWs). The microarrays produced red shift in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag NWs, and drastically improved the thermal stability and conductivity of encasing ppy. It has imparted anisotropic conductivity effect on ppy which resulted in sharp decrease in resistivity from 8.35 × 1010 Ω to 2.449 Ω, when NCs were isolated and crosslinked into MAs form, respectively. The drastic decrease in resistivity of ppy was due to the anisotropic effect produced by the MAs format of NWs.

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Synthesis, growth and characterization of semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal bis(thiourea) barium nitrate (BTBN) for frequency conversion

Abstract

A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, bis(thiourea) barium nitrate (BTBN) was synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method. Structure of the new crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it showed that BTBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. The crystalline nature of the BTBN was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction study. Important functional groups of BTBN were identified by FT-IR spectroscopic analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study showed that the grown crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with low cut off wavelength of 304 nm. BTBN exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 2.38 times higher than that of KDP. The BTBN crystal has high mechanical strength and belongs to soft category, which was confirmed by micorhardness study. The thermal stability of BTBN was determined from TGA and DTA thermal study which revealed that the BTBN crystal has thermal stability up to 243.1 °C. The surface properties and presence of elements was analyzed by SEM and EDAX study, respectively.

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Optical and thermal properties of TeO2–B2O3–Gd2O3 glass systems

Abstract

New glass samples with composition (1 – x)[(TeO2)70(B2O3)30] – x(Gd2O3) with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 in mol% have been synthesized by conventional melt-quenching techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were performed in order to confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The density of the samples has been found to vary with the Gd2O3 content, whereas an opposite trend has been observed in the molar volume. The analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy of the samples showed that the glass network is mainly built of TeO3, TeO4, BO3 and BO4 units. The addition of Gd2O3 changed the refractive index, optical band gap and Urbach energy of the glass samples. The thermal properties of the studied glasses were investigated by measuring the thermal diffusivity of the samples by using photoflash method at room temperature.

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Preparation of ceramic nanofibers of iron vanadate using electrospinning method

Abstract

Because of special characteristics of vanadate compound, such as its sustainability, magneticity, high selectivity in reactions and catalytic character, this study aimed to preparation and analyzing novel ceramic iron vanadate (FeVO4) nanofibers. The ceramic nanofibers of iron vanadate were made by the combination of sol-gel and electrospinning methods. First, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as a matrix polymer, was mixed separately with ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) and iron (III) nitrate (Fe(NO3)3). As a result, the spinnable polymeric gel was obtained from the controlled mixture of these two precursors of ceramic material. Electrospinning of PVA/iron (III) nitrate/ammonium vanadate solution was done using an Electroris setup that enabled preparation of polymeric template nanofiber. Finally, iron vanadate nanofiber was obtained by calcination of polymer nanofiber at controlled temperature. The products were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis.

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Study of damage extent to glass fibre in glass-fibre fabric reinforcement during exposure simulating concrete pore solution

Abstract

The paper evaluates extent of corrosion damage to composite glass-fibre fabric reinforcement in environment simulating concrete pore solutions (pH 12.6, 13.0, 13.5) and carbonated concrete contaminated with chlorides (pH 8.1 + Cl-) using the FT-IR and SEM/EDS techniques. Also, the effect of corrosion damage on tensile strength of segmented glass fibre as well as the presence of specific protective organic coating on glass fibre were studied. The results demonstrate local corrosion damage of samples at pH 13.5 and on the other hand high stability in environment simulating carbonated concrete and carbonated concrete contaminated with chlorides. The study also suggests unevenness of organic coating with occurrence of localized porosity which is related to aforementioned corrosion damage. Corrosion damage in FT-IR spectra manifests by changes in peaks signalling hydrolysis of protective organic coating and occurrence of peaks suggesting presence of Ca2+ rich corrosion products.

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Modification in surface properties of poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39) implanted by Au+ ions at different fluences

in the range from 5 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 to 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The structural and chemical alterations in CR-39 induced by ion implantation were analyzed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The changes produced in the optical properties of implanted CR-39 were estimated using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of varying fluence of metal ions on the electrical conductivity of implanted samples was explored. The examination of surface morphology of Au + ion implanted CR-39 was carried out by atomic force microscopy. The mechanism of

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