the German nationality in 1950, the community shrank to 18,658 individuals according to the most recent census in 2011. Germans are thus less numerous than most of the other 14 officially acknowledged national minorities in the Czech Republic. However, this weakness in numbers does not correspond with the economic power of the German state as well as the latter’s general commitment and ability to support German minorities in CentralandEasternEurope. Both the Czech government and the Federal Republic of Germany are currently implementing their language policies
awareness was common to all of EasternEurope. However, we see differences in the way that these nationalistic tendencies were used by politicians and local ethnic groups ( Montanari 2001 ). With gradual nationalization in other Soviet republics, such as the Baltic states andCentral Asia, Moldovans were also becoming aware of their national identity.
Weakening of central power and the lessening of censorship were accompanied by ethnic tensions in Moldova. Since the first years of independence, the country has been facing very difficult problems, including separatist
grassroots or village democracy in Vietnam, to gauge whether there are indeed democratic elements within the Vietnamese system, Duong (2004) looked at the Marxist–Leninist principle of democratic centralism – which means the people and party members can discuss issues at all levels but the central authority represents the individuals collectively and gets to make the final decisions. Zingerli (2004) highlighted the constraints in the government’s decree no. 29, which was issued in 2000, on theoretically increasing public participation in decision-making, monitoring