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Marija Bakotić, Biserka Radošević-Vidaček and Adrijana Košćec

Individualne Razlike i Učinci Deprivacije Spavanja

Suvremeni način života i različite životne okolnosti sve češće zahtijevaju od pojedinca da skrati trajanje spavanja i mijenja njegov raspored, što često rezultira deprivacijom spavanja. Ranija su istraživanja pokazala da učinci deprivacije spavanja na fiziološko i psihološko funkcioniranje pojedinca ovise o mnogobrojnim čimbenicima poput vrste deprivacije, trajanja prethodnog spavanja, doba dana kad se ispituju učinci, karakteristika zadataka koji se izvode te motivacije ispitanika. U ovom se radu raspravlja o učincima deprivacije spavanja te postojanju stabilnih individualnih razlika u tim učincima koje se nazivaju "ranjivost na gubitak spavanja". Novija istraživanja upućuju na moguću važnost nekih karakteristika ispitanika u predviđanju sustavnih i robusnih posljedica deprivacije spavanja, poput dobi i spola te nekih osobina ličnosti u širem smislu. Nadalje, upozorava se na moguću važnost individualnih razlika u nekim specifičnim osobinama povezanim sa spavanjem i budnošću, poput preferencija cirkadijurne faze, potrebe za spavanjem, za osobu karakteristične razine pospanosti i sposobnosti brzog uspavljivanja. Dosadašnja istraživanja osobina povezanih s različitom ranjivošću na gubitak spavanja nisu dala jednoznačne rezultate o njihovoj prediktivnoj važnosti. Daljnja istraživanja usmjerena na ovaj problem mogla bi pomoći u identifikaciji osoba koje su posebno ranjive na gubitak spavanja te pridonijeti osobnoj i općoj sigurnosti za vrijeme obavljanja noćnog rada.

Open access

Yan-Qiu Chen, Xiao-Fan Guo, Chang-Tian Li and Yu Li

Genetic Analysis of Inonotus Obliquus Strains by RAPD

RAPD profiling of eight Inonotus obliquus strains isolated from sclerotia collected from different areas of China was conducted to determine the genetic variability within this important medicinal fungus and to better define relationships between the genotype and geographical origins of isolation. Twelve 10-mer primers generated a total of 167 stable and reproducible DNA fragments, of which 101 (60.5%) were polymorphic. DNA fingerprints revealed genetic diversity among the strains tested, but there was the little intraspecific difference between the fingerprints of individual strains. A phenogram constructed based on UPGMA analysis of genetic distances calculated from RAPD fragment data identified three distinct groupings: (1) BCX01 and BCX02, (2) JL01, JL02, JL03, JL04 and JL05, (3) HLJ01. Our data confirm that the genetic variability among different strains may be a useful ancillary tool for identifying l. obliquus sclerotia of different geographical origins.

Open access

Aleksandar Višnjić, Vladica Veličković and Slađana Jović

Measures for Improving the Quality of Health Care

Quality and safety in the health sector go "hand in hand", which means that both components are inseparably linked - quality improvement will often affect more security. Good quality services will be successfully implemented in organizations that already have a "quality culture", i.e., where the value system of employees is consistent with their commitment to providing high quality health services. The organization must have a clear strategic commitment to providing quality services at all levels of an organization. Quality and safety are not "an extra element in providing services, but make its ground. As such, the quality and safety must be built into the organization. Patient satisfaction, quality service and efficient management of resources become "holy trinity" of modern health care, strictly oriented towards the patient, aimed at reducing costs while increasing quality. Healthcare system worldwide try to develop new strategies, the implementation of which would lead to the end result - improvement of health care quality.

Open access

Ganna M. Shayakhmetova, Larysa B. Bondarenko, Valentina M. Kovalenko and Volodymyr V. Ruschak

, Catanese VM, Rubin DF. Collagen fractionation: separation of native types I, II and III by differential precipitation. Anal Biochem 1976;71:114-8. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90016-6 22. Rubin AL, Drake MP, Davison PF, Pfahl D, Speakman PT, Schmitt FO. Effect of pepsin treatment on the interaction properties of tropocollagen macromolecules. Biochemistry 1965;4:181-90. doi: 10.1021/bi00878a001 23. Maurer G. [The Disk-Electrophoresis, in Russian]. Moscow: Mir; 1971. 24. Deveni T, Gherghey J. [The Aminoacids, Peptides and

Open access

Sandra Radić Brkanac, Valerija Vujčić, Petra Cvjetko, Vid Baković and Višnja Oreščanin


Leachates from active and closed municipal solid waste landfills can be a major source of contamination to groundwater and surface waters. In the present study the toxic and genotoxic potential of leachate from an old sanitary landfill prior to and following chemical and electrochemical treatments were assessed using Lemna, Allium, and comet tests. Photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (indicator of lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated as additional indicators of toxicity in duckweed. Following duckweed exposure to 25 % dilution of landfill leachate, growth rate and photosynthetic pigments content significantly decreased while lipid peroxidation increased despite stimulation of antioxidative defence mechanisms. Diluted leachate induced DNA strand breaks in duckweed cells as evidenced by the comet assay. Regarding the Allium test, untreated leachate caused inhibition of Allium cepa cell division and induction of mitotic and chromosomal aberrations. Although both water treatments completely reduced genotoxicity of leachate, the electrochemical method was found to be more efficient in removing toxic substances present in landfill leachate and thus more suitable for treating such leachates prior to their discharge into the environment. As landfill leachates pose a risk to human health and environment in general due to their (geno)toxicity, the present study demonstrates that the ecotoxicity/genotoxicity assays should be used in leachate risk assessment together with physicochemical analysis.

Open access

Dimitrios Kanelis, Chrysoula Tananaki, Vasilis Liolios, Maria Dimou, Georgios Goras, Maria Anna Rodopoulou, Emmanuel Karazafiris and Andreas Thrasyvoulou

This article proposes guidelines for quality standards of royal jelly. The proposals are based on two sets of data; the first from our study of the factors that may affect the royal jelly’s chemical composition (protein and sugar supplementation of beehives) and the second on the analysis of a great number of samples from across Greece to establish natural variability of this product. We compared our findings with the adopted national limits, the proposals of the working group of the International Honey Commission (IHC), and the draft proposal of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). The studied parameters included moisture, total proteins, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, total sugars), and 10-hydroxy- 2-decenoic acid (10-HDA). Our results indicate that the limits for royal jelly in some countries should be amended and the proposals of the IHC and the ISO reviewed in view of recent data on variability. We believe that our proposals could be considered for setting global standards for royal jelly, as they incorporate national legislations, proposals of scientific groups, experimental data, and updated information.

Open access

Edson Aparecido dos Santos, Claudinei da Cruz, Silvia Patrícia Carraschi, José Roberto Marques Silva, Rafael Grossi Botelho, Edivaldo Domingues Velini and Robinson Antonio Pitelli


The aim of this study was to determine the environmental concentration of atrazine (ATZ) in five streams located in the north of São Paulo state (Brazil) and evaluate its toxicological impact on young specimens of the pacu fish Piaractus mesopotamicus. Samples of water were collected on three occasions between 2010 and 2011, corresponding to periods signifying the beginning, middle, and end of rain season. ATZ levels were estimated by a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) triple quadrupole. Later, the quotient of environmental risk (QR) was determined based on the medium lethal concentration (LC50 48 h), non-observable effect concentration (NOEC), and the estimated environmental concentration (EEC) of ATZ detected in the environment. Histological changes in gills and liver were also studied, along with the brain activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The highest concentration of ATZ measured was 10.4 μg L-1. The ATZ LC50 (48 h) for young P. mesopotamicus was 24.46 mg L-1 and the QR was classified as “safe”. Although the QR indicated that ATZ could be safe for the tested species, it caused many histological alterations in the liver and gills of the exposed specimens, and an increase in the AChE levels.

Open access

Elizana Petrela, Genc Burazeri, Fatjona Pupuleku, Edmond Zaimi and Mizanur Rahman


We assessed the prevalence and socioeconomic and behavioural correlates of hypertension in the young to middle-aged population of Albania, a transitional post-communist country in the Western Balkans. We analysed a sample of 2,837 men and 3,580 women aged 15 to 49 from the 2008/2009 Albanian Demographic and Health Survey. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mm Hg, or DBP≥90 mm Hg, or if the subjects were under treatment for hypertension. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and behavioural factors were also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of hypertension with covariates. Hypertension was significantly higher among men (27.3 %) than women (20.0 %), and significantly increased with age. The harmful effect of excessive weight and obesity on hypertension was stronger among women than among men and this effect increased with age, especially in women. Smoking and alcohol were risk factors for hypertension in men, but not women. Education had a protective effect on hypertension in women but not in men.

Open access

Lalita Bharadwaj and Ray Machibroda

Human Health Risk Assessment Approach for Urban Park Development

A Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) was undertaken for a proposed park development "River Landing", to be constructed along the north bank of the South Saskatchewan River in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The purpose of the HHRA was to determine whether chemical constituents identified at the site, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), and toxic and heavy metals, would adversely affect the health of construction workers and potential park users. Although more traditional remediation options were considered, the risk assessment approach was chosen since it represented the best available technology. The HHRA was undertaken using protocols and methodologies proposed and readily accepted by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), Health Canada, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Results of the risk assessment revealed that the magnitude and distribution of the chemicals at the site were such that extensive remediation was not required, and that the site could be developed without any significant restrictions on the proposed use. The assessment revealed that potential exposure to soil constituents would not result in adverse health risk to construction workers involved in park development or future park users.

Open access

Mohammed S. Khan, Gowda D. Vishakante and H. G. Shivakumar

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate porous nanoparticles of metoprolol tartrate by spray-drying using ammonium carbonate as pore former. Prepared nanoparticles were coated with Eudragit S100 polymer in order to prevent the release of metoprolol tartrate in the upper GI tract. It was shown that nanoparticles with low size ranges can be obtained with a low feed inlet rate. Micromeritic studies confirmed that nanoparticle batches are discrete and free flowing. Effects of the pore former on drug loading, porosity and in vitro release were studied. It was found that there was an increase in drug loading and porosity with increasing the amount of pore former. In vitro drug release studies showed that an increase in pore former made drug release faster. Release kinetics proved that nanoparticles follow a zero-order release mechanism.