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occupationalgroups ( Reimer et al., 2008 ). The high job-specificity protects graduates of fields like medicine, law, or architecture from educational mismatch ( Ortiz and Kucel, 2008 ). Second, credentialism theories suggest that in a world where the true personal abilities are unknown, the chosen field of study can also act as an ability signal to employers. Obtaining a degree in fields like maths, natural sciences, or technical disciplines, which enjoy the reputation of imposing high intellectual demands on their students, could convince employers of the extraordinary
jobs hierarchically, using the UK standard occupational classification, into nine broad occupational groupings: (1) managers/senior administrator occupations; (2) professional; (3) associate professional; (4) clerical and secretarial; (5) craft and related; (6) personal and protective services; (7) sales; (8) plant and machine operatives; and (9) other. For reasons of parsimony, the nine occupationalgroups are aggregated into three main occupationalgroups in our analysis as follows:
Higher professional-level occupations composed of: (i) managers/senior; (ii
Robert Čecho, Viera Švihrová, Dominika Čecho, Martin Novák and Henrieta Hudečková
. Perceived workplace stress and co-occurrence of health problems and burnout in different occupationalgroups. Zdr Varst. 2013;52:292-303. doi: 10.2478/sjph-2013-0030.
Novak T Sedlar N Šprah L Perceived workplace stress and co-occurrence of health problems and burnout in different occupationalgroups Zdr Varst 2013 52 292 303 10.2478/sjph-2013-0030
6 Järvelin-Pasanen S, Sinikallio S, Tarvainen MP. Heart rate variability and occupational stress - systematic review. Ind Health. 2018;56:500-11. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2017-0190. 10.2486/indhealth.2017
Ling He, Yu-Feng Ma, Ke-Sen Zhang and Ya-Xing Wang
negatively related to workplace bullying
Research shows that long-term bullying in the workplace will seriously damage the physical and mental health of individuals, affect their job satisfaction and quality, and eventually lead to their resignation. 43 Compared with other occupationalgroups, nurses who are highly engaged are more likely to suffer workplace bullying. 44 Nurses with low self-esteem are at greater risk of bullying in the workplace, and their degree of depression is significantly higher. 45 Nie et al. 46 found that workplace bullying was significantly
service quality aimed at occupationalgroups ( Landrum et al., 2010 ). In the study of Ko and Pastore (2007) in which 82% of the sample group consisted of students, and which concentrated on the service quality as well as customer satisfaction of campus recreation programmes, it was determined that participants had a high average concerning the general service quality. The authors of that study stated that while the dimension of result had the highest average, the dimension of physical environment quality had the lowest average. The high average of students concerning