The paper presents the results of a 5-year study on the population size of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia L.) as one of the indicator species used to assess a biodiversity level in agricultural areas. The study was carried out in Masurian Landscape Park situated in Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship. The results demonstrated that the white stork population size was closely linked to agricultural areas, in particular, the extensively managed permanent grassland. In the years 2014–2018, even if minor changes were observed in the land use structure, the white stork population size showed a slight upward trend within the study area. In order to maintain this status, efforts should be made to preserve open landscapes (first and foremost – meadows and pastures), which are preferred feeding grounds of white stork. Consequently, potential decision as regards afforestation and housing should be made considerately.
Jozef Dušička, Karol Mičieta, Eva Brutovská, Andrea Sámelová, Jana Ščevková, Mária Zámečníková and Alena Terenová
This work is focused on mapping the aeropalynologic situation in the Bratislavan atmosphere. Volumetric pollen and pollen abortivity analyses were used for this purpose. The research comprised comparison of two pollen stations in this city between 2007 and 2011. Twice the number of pollen grains was measured at the U.V.Z. station compared to the D.B. station. Results showed that (1) the highest pollen totals for the period were recorded in the Urticaceae family, (2) April was the month with the highest pollen yield, and (3) species of the Urticaceae family had the longest pollen season of all studied taxa. The detected differences may have been due to various factors including; the very different habitats in the vicinity of the stations, slightly different climatic conditions, different evaluation methods and human factors. The ecogenotoxicity and mutagenicity of air at these selected city locations was evaluated and compared, and the effectiveness of our methods were verified by Betula pendula Roth . and Pinus sylvestris L . indicator species.
The environmental impact of cadmium use and its accumulation in nature have increased to alarming levels. This study aimed to morphologically and histologically investigate the acute toxic effects of cadmium on green toad, Pseudepidalea variabilis (Pallas, 1769) larvae. Embryos were obtained from specimens collected in amplexus from nature and kept under laboratory conditions until stage 26, when they were exposed to cadmium (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 Lig L-1) for 96 h. The LC10 LC50, and LC90 values of cadmium were calculated to be 26.98, 35.35, and 46.31 Lig L-1, respectively. Our results showed that cadmium had a negative effect on the body size of P. variabilis larvae (over 1 ng L-1). Histological examination detected a fusion of gill lamellae, liver haemorrhage, oedema in the abdominal cavity, and deformations of pronephric tubules (over 10 ng L-1). Our findings suggest that the green toad was sensitive to the cadmium treatment, with LC50 values lower than those reported by other studies. Thus, this species could be considered a reliable indicator species of environmental stress in aquatic ecosystem.
In Safragashteh forest of Fuman in north of Iran, there is a hazel stand, which has grown naturally. The aim of this research was to evaluate the plant communities and soil characteristics in the area. This study included 50 ha of hazel protected area. A selective sampling method was utilized to record 30 400 m2 for tree and shrub layers, and sub-plots of 100 m2 for herbaceous species. Soil samples were collected at the 30 plots. We found three ecological species groups in the study area. Corylus avellana and Epimedium pinnatum in first group, Fagus orientalis, Asperula odorata, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Carex sp., Fragaria vesca and Viola sylvestris in second group, and Crataegus microphylla, Ilex spinigera, Primula heterochroma, Sedum stoloniferum and Vicia crocea in thirth group were the indicator species. Sand percent was significantly highest in Corylus avellana group, while clay, nutrients elements, pH and SP were significantly highest in the other groups. Biodiversity indices in Corylus avellana group were significantly less than other stands. We recommend to provide comprehensive conservation and management programs in order to protect of common hazel, associated plant species, and to prevent of human activities such as recreational use and livestock.
Due to fewer bumblebees in rural areas these days, it is necessary to look for alternative habitats for the active protection of these very important pollinators. The research was carried out in The Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, in Wrocław, Poland. In the garden, approximately 2000 plant species were cultivated, of which 185 were visited by bumblebees. Amongst them, 57 plant species were deemed very attractive and were determined to be indicators for 7 bumblebee species. Indicator species for bumblebees ranged between 6 for Bombus pratorum to up to 20 for B. pascuorum. Monarda didyma was an indicator plant to 6 recorded bumblebee species. Other indicator plant species for at least 4 bumblebees species were: Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron catawbiense, Phacelia tanacetifolia, and Agastache rugosa. Three bumblebee species were found to forage the most on 11 of the flowering plant species. The biggest group of plants were those which were mostly visited by 1-2 bumblebee species. Amongst all recorded indicator plants, 32% were native species.
In the 11 years between 1999 and 2010, certain groups of birds inhabiting Kozjansko Regional Park underwent a moderate or large decline. Composite indices for indicator species of different habitat types showed an increase of generalist species (composite index 108.3), a moderate decline of forest species (composite index 76.6) and species of extensively managed orchards (composite index 76.4), and a large decline of farmland (composite index 62.8) and grassland species (composite index 8.7). Our study was based on a census using line transects with an inner and outer belt. Randomly distributed line transects with a total length of 60.8 km were surveyed using the same method both in 1999 and 2010. The decline of farmland species mirrors the population trend of this group at the national level. The study area is protected by multiple nature conservation mechanisms. It is protected as a regional park and partly as a Natura 2000 site. These mechanisms, however, do not seem to be functioning here. We believe the large decline of grassland species is a consequence of agricultural policy, which favours a decrease of extensively managed grasslands.
Marcela Havelková, Tomáš Randák, Jana Blahová, Iveta Slatinská and Zdeňka Svobodová
Biochemical markers for the assessment of aquatic environment contamination
The need for assessment of aquatic ecosystem contamination and of its impact on water dwelling organisms was developed in response to rising aquatic environmental pollution. In this field study, liver enzymes of phase I and phase II of xenobiotic transformation, namely cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase and tripeptide glutathione were used to assess the contamination of the aquatic environment at different rivers in the Czech Republic. The indicator species selected was the male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Chemical analyses included also the assessment of the most important inductors of previously mentioned biochemical markers. The major inductors of monitored biomarkers are industrial contaminants which belong to a large group of organic pollutants (PCB, PAH, PCDD/F, DDT, HCH, HCB and OCS), persistent in the environment. Four different groups of river basins were assessed: the River Tichá Orlice and its tributary the Kralický brook; important tributaries of the River Elbe (the rivers Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina); major rivers in the Czech Republic (the rivers Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra) and the River Vltava. The use of the biochemical markers together with chemical analyses seems to be an effective way to monitor the quality of aquatic environment.
D. Ó hUallacháin, J.A. Finn, B. Keogh, R. Fritch and H. Sheridan
required applicants to identify at least three grass species other than Lolium perenne in the sward and specified that the land parcel must not have been cultivated for a minimum of eight years prior to entry into the scheme ( DAFM, 2010 ). The SRG measure required the identification of indicatorspecies as an eligibility criterion for participation and had similar cultivation requirements as for THM. Typically, no pesticides, chemical fertiliser, slurry or farmyard manure (beyond inputs from grazing animals) could be applied to SRG, with the exception being AEOS 3
. 377-391, 2001
VUJIĆ A: Nature protection. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, p. 12, 2008 (In Serbian).
ZHAO Q, MASON THE, AZERIA ET, LE BLANC ML, LEMAÎTRE J, BARNIER F, BICHET O, FORTIN D: Robust predictive performance of indicatorspecies despite different co-occurrence patterns of birds in natural and managed boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 397, 108-116, 2017.