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Pressure Drop - Flow Relationships in Cigarette Filter Rods and Tobacco Columns

References 1. Fordyce, W. B., I. W. Hughes and M. G. lvinson: The filtration of cigarette smoke; Tob. Sci. 5 (1961) 70-75. 2. Meyer-Abich, K.: Die StrOmungsverhiiltnisse in Cigaretten; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 307-329. 3. Strydom, M. L., and J. P. Otto: Investigating whether the air flow through cigarettes and filter rods has laminar or turbulent characteristics; Coresta Information Bulletin 1972-2, 13-16. 4. Palmade, P.: Contribution a l'etude des koulements dans les cigarettes; Annales du

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A Mathematical Scheme for Calculating Flows and Pressure Drops in Lit and Unlit Cigarettes

ventilation variability in cigarettes; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 13 (1987) 82-118. 5. Lewis, L.S. and A.B. Norman: Effects of tipping perforation type on cigarette performance; 40th Tobacco Chemists Research Conference, Knoxville, TN., Program Booklet and Abstracts, no. 50, p. 27, 1986. 6. Mathis, D.E.: Component analysis of pressure drop and ventilation variability; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 12 (1984) 169-177. 7. Mathis, D.E.: Flow ratę dependence of ventilation; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1987) 11

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Steady State Flow in the Cigarette and its Influence on Pressure Drop - Die stationäreStrömung in der Cigarette und derenEinfluß auf den Zugwiderstand

design handbook, Bd. 2; VDI, Düs-seldorf, Hemisphere, New York, 1986, p. 2.2.5.-2. 32. Carman, P. C.: Flow of gases through porous media; Academic Press, New York, 1956. 33. Happel, J.: Viscous flow in multiparticle systems: slow motion of fluids relative to beds of spherical particles; J.A.I.CH.E. 4 (1958) 197-201. 34. Ergun, S., und A. A. Orning: Fluid flow through randomly packed columns and fluidised beds; Ind. Eng. Chem. 41 (1949) 179. 35. DIN 10251

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Changes of total annual runoff distribution, high and low discharges in Latvian rivers

. 160-170). Reykyavik, Nordic Hydrological Programme, NHP Report No. 50. Kriaučiūniene, J., Kovalenkoviene, M., Meilutyte-Barauskiene, D. (2007). Changes of the low flow in Lithuanian rivers. Environ. Res. Eng. Manag. , 4 (42), 5-12. Lisbiseller, C., Grimvall, A. (2002). Performance of partial Mann-Kendall Test for trend detection in the presence of covariates. Environmetrics , 13 , 71-84. Lizuma, L., Kļaviņš, M., Briede, A., Rodinovs, V. (2007). Long-term changes of air temperature in

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Wavelet analysis of the Baltic region river runoff longh-term trends and fluctuations

References Amarasekera, K.N., Lee, R.L., Williams, E.R., Eltahir, E.E.B. (1997). ENSO and the natural variability in the flow of tropical rivers. J. Hydrol. , 200 , 24-39. Bayazit, M., Onoz, B., Aksoy, H. (2001). Nonparametric streamflow simulation by wavelet or Fourier analysis. Hydrol. Sci. , 46 (4), 623-634. Benit, G., Diez-Herrero, A., de Villalta, M.F. (2003). Magnitude and frequency of flooding in the Tagus basin (Central Soain) over the last millennium. Clim. Change

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Role of Interferon-Gamma (Ifn-γ) in Immune Response Regulation in Hiv-1 and Hiv-1 + Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Tb) Infected Patients / Interferona-gamma (Ifn-γ) Loma Imūnās Atbildes Regulēšanā Pacientiem Ar HIV-1 un HIV-1 + mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Th1 to Th2 cytokine shift during the course of HIV-1 infection using cytoplasmic cytokine detection on single cell level by flow cytometry. AIDS, 11, 1111-1118. Li, J. C. B., Au, K., Fang, J., Yim, H. C. H., Chow, K., Ho, P., Lau, A. S. Y. (2011). HIV-1 trans-activator protein dysregulates IFN-g signaling and contributes to the suppression of autophagy induction. AIDS, 25, 15-25. Modjarrad, K., Vermund, S. H. (2010). Effect of treating co-infections on HIV-1 viral load: A systematic review. Lancet Infect. Dis., 10, 455

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Regional Lung Blood Perfusion Measured With Laser Doppler Method During Body Position Change, Valsalva Manoeuvre and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

References Agostoni, P., Arena, V., Biglioli, P., Doria, E., Sala, A., Susini, G. (1989). Increase of alveolar pressure reduces systemic-to-pulmonary bronchial blood flow in humans. Chest , 96(5), 1081-1085. Angdin, M., Settergren, G., Astudillo, R., Liska, J. (1998). Altered reactivity to acetylcholine in the pulmonary circulation after cardiopulmonary bypass is part of reperfusion injury. J. Clin. Anesth. , 10(2), 126-132. Baile, E. M., Godden, D. J., Pare, P. D. (1988). Non

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Pressure and Gas Flow Distribution Inside the Filter of a Non-Filter Ventilated Lit Cigarette During Puffing

7. REFERENCES 1. Norman, A.: Cigarette Design and Materials; in : Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, pp. 353–387. 2. Fuchs, N.A. and I.B. Stechkina: A Note on the Theory of Fibrous Aerosol Filters; Ann. Occup. Hyg. 6 (1963) 27–30. DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/6.1.27 3. Keith, C.H.: Pressure Drop-Flow Relationships in Cigarette Filter Rods and Tobacco Columns; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 11 (1982) 115–121. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2013-0505 4. Keith, C.H.: Physical

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Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke by Continuous Flow Analysis Method Using Safer Chemistry

. 10 (1981) 99–106. DOI:10.1080/03067318108071535 26. Purkis, S. and M. Intorp: Analysis of Reference Cigarette Smoke Yield Data from 21 Laboratories for 28 Selected Analytes as a Guide to Selection of New CORESTA Recommended Methods; Beitr. Tabak-forsch. Int. 26 (2014) 57–73. DOI: 10.2478/cttr-2014-0010 27. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): 14403-2:2012 Water Quality — Determination of Total Cyanide and Free Cyanide Using Flow Analysis (FIA and CFA) Part 2: Method Using Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA); ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012

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Assessment of Tissue Perfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Assessment of Tissue Perfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains essential for all valvular operations and the vast majority of coronary bypass surgeries. Inadequate CPB results in tissue underperfusion, activation of anaerobic metabolism and increased lactate production. The goal of the study was to determine the factors influencing oxygen delivery to and consumption in tissue. Fifty-six patients (41 male and 14 female patients of 27 to 84 years of age) scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery with CPB were enrolled in this prospective study. No operation-based selection was applied. The following data have been collected and analysed: demographics, preoperative cardiovascular profile. Arterial and venous blood gas tests, including blood glucose and lactate concentrations were obtained. We have assessed DO2 (mL/min/m2) and VO2 (mL/min/m2), venous oxygen content (CvO2) (mL/dL), arterial oxygen content (CaO2) (mL/dL) calculated according to standard equations based on haemoglobin concentration and saturation in arterial blood, cardiac output or pump flow. The main factors of organ dysoxia during CPB are the haemodilution degree and low peripheral oxygen delivery (DO2). Our study confirmed that hematocrit on pump and systemic flow rate determine the amount of oxygen delivery to the body, i.e. DO2 decrease is correlated with decrease of both hematocrit (Ht) and pump flow.

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