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The size of all sensible heat balance components in livestock building varies in time, because it depends on time-varying weather factors. On the example of two buildings, sensible heat balance was shown on a daily basis. Measurements carried out in winter and spring in two livestock buildings with usable attics included measurements of air temperature and humidity inside and outside, air velocity in ventilation channels, and wind speed. Measuring devices were designed to record the results of measurements at intervals of 300s. During each such time interval, sensible heat losses by ventilation, heat losses by permeation through the barrier construction, and the amount of sensible heat produced by the animals were calculated. The results of measurements were shown in graphs. The study is important for the development of animal livestock building.


The objective of the paper was to analyse possibilities and advantages of energy recovery from municipal solid waste during the thermal treatment in boilers with a moving grate system. The state of the art of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boilers was investigated mainly by reviewing papers published in scientific journals and at conferences but also by taking into consideration reports from research institutes. The article shows the main aspects that determine the popularity of this type of boilers as well as new solutions which greatly improve the process of thermal treatment of waste. It proves that waste incineration boilers based on the moving grate technology prevail mainly because of its simplicity, reliability and effective energy generation to which special attention was paid. Additionally, the article mentions how WtE boilers are designed and operated to incinerate municipal waste with a great variation in composition with simultaneous notable energy recovery and low environmental impacts. Contemporary development of the Polish WtE infrastructure can be a very important factor influencing the national municipal waste management together with renewable energy and energy efficiency policies.


In recent years, a dynamic development of brewing has been observed. Increasingly, production of malt and beer takes place even in smaller industrial factories, breweries restaurants or at home. Extraction is a process applied in a variety of industries, including food production, as a way of extracting specific ingredients from their mixtures. As a result of this process, not only sugars, proteins, fats, enzymes, vitamins, colorants, fragrances and flavors, but also malt and hop extracts are being isolated. In the process of mashing, in which the malt ingredients are being extracted, many biochemical, physical and chemical changes take place. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of the degree of fragmentation of pilsner type malt on the amount of extract obtained and the pH of the mash. It has been observed that the degree of malt fragmentation has a significant effect on the content of the extract in the mash: the more fragmented malt, the more malt extract in mash produced using the malt. It has also been found that the pH of the mash increases with the average particle size of malt.

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Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Ellis, W.O., Oduro, I., Appiah, F., Antwi, Y. (2007). Quality of oil from Treculia Africana – an underutilized forest plant. Discovery and Innovation, 19 , 267-270. Enibe, S.O., Akubuo, C.O., Mbah, B.N., Onweluzo, J.A., Enibe, D.O., Oduro, I., Ellis, W.A. (2013). Progress in agronomic, nutritional and engineering development research on Treculia Africana tree crop. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS): for a Food Secure Africa , Accra, Ghana, 25th–27th

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