The main purpose of the paper is to present some of the mechanisms connected with the functioning of the Polish housing market, with due regard to demand and supply volatility as well as the changing financial conditions at the time of the global financial crisis of the first decade of the present century. Special attention is given to the financial and legal regulations concerning the housing market, which were introduced in response to the economic downturn.
On the basis of research conducted by the authors, as well as available reports and statistics for 2007-2013, the article will explore market phenomena (the size and pattern of demand, supply and prices on the housing market, and the changes they undergo) on the one hand, and the legal and financial regulatory changes directly affecting them, on the other. It will also study the effects of the implementation of the recommendations made by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF) by banks in the wake of the global financial crisis. These cause banks to tighten their credit policies and, accordingly, have an impact on their loan portfolios. Information from secondary sources has also been used, notably from the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the KNF, the National Bank of Poland (NBP), as well as the Polish Bank Association (ZBP) and the Credit Information Bureau (BIK). Changes that occurred during the period of economic crisis in the availability of housing have also been examined.
Access to a good and healthy life is a human right recognised globally. The fight to deal with poverty and food insecurity as the top two sustainable development goals (SDGs) under the global agenda 2030 can only be achieved if a majority of the world population is able to participate in economic activities. However, the provision of healthcare is complicated by the nature of the demand and supply function. There is inefficient provision due to the positive externalities associated with healthcare provision and consequently the social efficiency is not achieved, especially when private provision is considered, and therefore the need for government involvement. This paper analyses the demand for private healthcare in South Africa, using the data collected from a general household survey with a sample of 21601 households. The results of the logistic regression model show that the gender of the head of a household, income, food security status, age of head of household and social grant and pension status were among the significant predictors of demand for private healthcare. The study provides insights on how provision of healthcare should be tailored so as to achieve maximum efficiency in public provision of healthcare.
This paper aims at explaining the volatility of two main macroeconomic variables (interest rate and exchange rate) that impact the cost of international capital and, consequently, the international financing decision. Firstly, the main economic theories are called to illustrate the relevant determinants of these variables from the perspective of demand and supply of capital sides. The state intervention through monetary policy is introduced to emphasize the alteration of these prices (the price of capital, the price of foreign currencies). The paper is presenting the role of these prices in international financing decision (based on the theoretical model used to estimate cost of international capital), their impact on the foreign direct investment decision and on the international portfolio investment decision. Finally, the paper describe the economic consequences of the monetary public intervention on the financing and investment decision in direct connection with the business cycle theory. The paper associates the monetary policy to the business cycles. The paper comments the unsound solutions proposed against the economic crises and that continued to harm negatively these prices generating the seeds for next international economic recession. The paper is a theoretical one, containing some very interesting research hypothesis and opening the paths for presumable further empirical researches.
Joanna Bogołębska, Ewa Feder-Sempach and Ewa Stawasz-Grabowska
Safe assets are recognized as being the cornerstone of contemporary financial systems. Due to financial globalization and massive international capital flows, they transformed into global safe assets, meaning that both demand and supply sides can be created by international investors. The article consists of two main parts. The first one concentrates on the theoretical issues of safe assets: definitions, attributes, categories of investors who search for them, as well as categories of suppliers. The theoretical considerations lead to the conclusions that only debt instruments can be used as safe assets, and due to limited substitutability between private and public issues, only the latter can perform this function properly, especially in times of stress. In the context of global safe asset considerations, it seems reasonable that only countries issuing reserve currencies can become public issuers of safe assets.
The empirical analysis presented in the second part of the article confirms the theoretical predictions. A study of sovereign bond yield differentials conducted for two groups of countries (issuers of reserve currency and non-issuers but possessing the highest credit ratings) shows that in the period 2005–2017, the spreads in the first group were depressed by the mere fact they held the status of a reserve currency issuer.
Employability of graduating students is a main precondition for successful university to work transition. Discrepancies on the labour market in terms of demand and supply of highly qualified specialists, increasing requirements and expectations of recently university graduates towards their future jobs, high speed of technological changes resulting in new jobs for which educations is lagging behind and increasing demand for well-developed transferable skills are some of the main challenges which universities are facing nowadays. Thus, their main priorities shall stress on collaboration that is more effective with industrial companies, resulting in contemporary curricula and development and implementation of new forms of cooperation for encouragement of graduating students’ employability. There are some good practices in Bulgaria for common initiatives leading to better professional orientation and further job placing but there is a lack of overall strategic approach in this field. Therefore, there is a necessity of identification and introduction of new forms of cooperation, which will boost partnership and could provide the labour market with more adequate specialists, matching employers’ recent requirements. The purpose of the paper is to provide a methodology of evaluation of problems in university-industry cooperation for encouragement of graduating students’ employability.The main elements of research of cooperation between universities and industry in Bulgaria include (1) description of possible forms of cooperation, (2) evaluation of industry attitudes for cooperation based on 4 criteria - importance, application, interest for participation and awareness of the forms, (3) comparison of opinions of industry and universities in Bulgaria.
Water in the Seybouse River basin is getting scarce, yet it is the key to its economic development. A fast growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial sectors and the impacts of climate variability, create demands for new water sources and innovative management of water resources and services. The object of this study is the water resources management in the lower Seybouse basin characterized by a steady increase of water demand to meet different uses. This study takes into account changes in water demand of different urban, agricultural and industrial supply process. Our approach is to integrate data in WEAP modelling software to simulate current and future water balance and then to analyse the situation of water in different scenarios, socio-economic development and climate change to 2050. This software is based on the representation of the feeding system in a form of the network of water demand and supply. Our findings reveal the vulnerability of the region in its ability to the pressures resulting from the increase of needs of different sectors at the horizon of the forecasted period. They also indicate the need for larger mobilization of new resources into the system and lay the foundations for a sustainable water policy in the northern region of the Seybouse valley.
Research relevance is determined by the need to enhance teacher education, consolidate teachers’ further professional and personal development, increase the prestige of the teaching profession. The article focuses on enhancing professional training of teachers in the European countries under the conditions of lifelong learning. Based on the study and analysis of reseaches by Ukrainian and foreign scholars and some statistical information, the peculiarities of teaching and teacher training have been justified. Mentoring has been described as a way of transferring experience, knowledge, abilities and skills from one age group to another, or from one person to another. It has been found that mentoring aims to provide support and promote self-realization in professional activity. Lifelong learning has been defined as a programme for thinking and activity development. The statistical data on the needs of teacher development and thematic demand and supply in lifelong learning have been analyzed. It has been emphasized that modern trends in the development of lifelong learning for teachers in the EU countries include consolidation and rationalization of organizational structures with the purpose of developing the national systems of postgraduate teacher education based on scientific principles of organization and management theory, as well as orientation towards reaching the balance between the interests of all participants, partners, central authorities of education management, regional and local education authorities, school administration, teachers; stimulating innovative activities of teachers, etc. It has been concluded that taking into account European experience in organizing lifelong learning for teachers will allow Ukraine to enhance professional training of teachers, professionalization in self-education, their reflexive practice of searching for effective ways to integrate the latest technologies into the education process.
Lalida Pariyakanok, Suphawadee Erjongmanee and Preamjit Saonanon
Background: Corneal transplantation is the most frequent organ transplantation worldwide. Many indications for corneal transplantation have been proposed and several novel indications have been reported in various studies. Nevertheless, there is no national data from Thailand to date.
Objective: We identified indications and evolving trends of corneal transplantations in Thailand between January 1996 and December 2008
Methods: Corneal graft registry records of the Thai Red Cross Eye Bank during January 1996 and December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis of the recipient eye is considered as an indication for transplantation. Patients’ demographic data, diagnosis, operating hospitals, and number of collected corneal tissues annually were collected. Analyzed data were shown in scattergram and simple linear regression. A p value of 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Among 3,582 records, 2,802 (78.2%) had the transplantation done for an optical reason. Others were performed due to either therapeutic or tectonic reasons. None of the cases was operated for a cosmetic concern. Mean age of patients was 51.8 years. Male (56.8%) was slightly predominant over female (43.2%). Corneal scar (20.44%) was the most frequent indicated reasons followed by corneal ulcer (19.15%), pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (16.81%), corneal dystrophies (11.08%) and regraft (10.75%). PBK/ABK and regraft showed an increasing trend during the study period.
Conclusion: Common indications for corneal transplantation in Thailand were corneal scar, corneal ulcer, PBK/ ABK, corneal dystrophies and regraft respectively. Due to imbalanced demand and supply of donated corneas, not all of the patients received corneal transplantations in a timely manner. As a result, this study might not truly represent the actual indications for corneal transplantation in Thailand. With continued development in donation awareness, financial support and inter-organizational collaborations and healthcare as a whole, adequate numbers of corneal supply might be possible in the future.
Nové zdroje inovací - výzvy pro českou ekonomiku a její postavení v globální ekonomice
Globalizace v současné době, zčásti i v důsledku ekonomické krize, přechází do druhé fáze a mezi odborníky se začíná hovořit o tzv. globalizaci 2.0. Ta znamená nejen další silnější propojení světové ekonomiky, ale zejména posilování pozice rozvíjejících se zemí nejen z pohledu výroby, ale především z pohledu spotřeby. Hlavní centra nabídky a poptávky se proměňujía výroba a spotřeba se opět začínají více organizovat ve stejné lokalitě. Rychle se rozvíjející ekonomiky a jejich velmi početná populace se tak podle odborníků i manažerů některých velkých korporací stanou hlavním motorem budoucí poptávky (spotřeby). A tedy i zdrojem pro nové inovace (inovace totiž začíná i končí u zákazníka), které budou díky své jednoduchosti, snadnému použití i nižším nákladům pronikat i na vyspělé trhy. Cílem tohoto článku je jednoduše zhodnotit, jak si v tomto kontextu stojí Česko a také jaké má tato proměna důsledky pro podporu inovací a konkurenceschopnosti.
Current educational systems and processes need to anticipate the challenges of the new millennium and lay the foundations for the future in the economic, social, technological, cultural and relational context. New educational programs must seriously consider a number of conditions such as: entirely new ways of serving existing needs and significantly disrupt existing industry value chains; growing transparency, consumer engagement, and new patterns of consumer behavior; the development of technology-enabled platforms that combine both demand and supply to disrupt existing industry structures, such as those we see within the “sharing” or “on demand” economy. In this paper I`ve started from the assumption that in the specific conditions of a creativity-based economy is necessary to rethink the components of the matrix partnership crossing from `triple helix` to `quadruple helix` logic. This new model becomes necessary because under current regional and international circumstances Mode 3 of knowledge production has become generalized. In this paper I`ve opted for the concept that adds civil society proposing reformulate the analytical model so as to place in balance integration with differentiation to produce suitability for a societal design defined by the self-organization of the sense communication process with respect to the analytical axes of complex systems. The basic idea of the research is to identify the way in which the challenges of internationalization of education, the transformations required by the emergence of this process, and the most relevant redefining that must take place at the level of curricular architectures and learning methods are understood. Based on the research I have made, I recommended few ways to cope with sensitive challenges educational systems are confronted with such as: better connecting theory and practice, teaching a more useful economics, designing the future based on the understanding of the past, minimizing the rhetorical component and maximizing the factual one, testing conformity of different ideas in advance.