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parameters [ 3 ]. Digital processing may take place for filtering noise and performing calibration of the EIS system prior to impedance spectra calculation. Commercial EIS equipment may use two or four electrodes for impedance measurement, which may have or not have, cable effects compensation. Apart from this available compensation, commonly calibration can be applied externally by the user, such as short and open-circuit techniques. Due to the fact that four-electrode technique measures a transfer impedance, there has not been found in literature such a compensation
effective energy for QA and QC: measurement of half-value layer using radiochromic film density. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2009;32(1),26-29.
 Gotanda T, Katsuda T, Gotanda R, et al. Half-value layer measurement: simple process method using radiochromic film. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2009;32(3):150-158.
 Gotanda T, Katsuda T, Gotanda R, et al. Evaluation of effective energy using radiochromic film and a step-shaped aluminum filter. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2011;34(2):213-222.
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Ole Martin Steihaug, Bård Bogen, Målfrid Holen Kristoffersen and Anette Hylen Ranhoff
such as ceramics, hydroxyapatites and polyethylenes. These changes can potentially increase or decrease the electrical conductance, and it is difficult to predict how they will affect BIA measurements. If BIA is to be useful in the large group of acute hip fracture patients, or other patient groups undergoing surgery, it is important to determine the influence of fracture, surgery and surgical implants on BIA readings. The aim of this study is to answer the following research questions: 1) Are BIA measurements affected by recent fracture and surgical repair? 2) Are
Jakob Orschulik, Diana Pokee, Tobias Menden, Steffen Leonhardt and Marian Walter
The continuous monitoring of the air distribution inside the lungs is of great clinical interest at the bedside, especially in mechanically ventilated patients. One promising concept to achieve this is Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). The general idea is to reconstruct impedance changes inside the body from multiple impedance measurements at the body surface [ 5 ]. These measurements are typically performed using 16 or 32 electrodes, which are positioned on a belt around the thorax at a defined height, typically between the 4th and 6st
Analysis of the passive electrical properties of tissue (bioimpedance) can be challenging as the data is complex, the data amount can be large, methods of interpretation are vast, and the electrical properties often have a non-linear relation to the biological property of interest. Raw immittance data from bioimpedance measurements are typically presented as admittance, impedance or dielectric parameters, represented by real and imaginary components.
As the electrical properties of tissue always are frequency dependent (1), bioimpedance will
Itumeleng Setilo, Oluwaseyi Michael Oderinde and Freek Cp du Plessis
: Quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements. Med Phys. 2009;26(7):3132-3144.
 Herrup D, Chu J, Cheung H, Pankuch M. Determination of penumbral widths from ion chamber measurements. Med Phys. 2005;32(12):3636-3640.
 Nasir MKR, Amjad N, Razzaq A, Siddique MT. Measurement and Analysis of PDDs Profile and Output Factors for Small Field Sizes by cc13 and Micro-Chamber cc01. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology