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we can emphasize further the richness of ideas gathered in many “funeral orations” in Byzantium, where some notable arguments are expressed. A “funeral oration” in classical thought was already a way of communally dealing with death and suffering. In fact this aspect has not been given any attention by contempo- rary theologians. As we have implied, while the Fathers of the Church, for example, did not deal with modern issues of bioethics, they in fact dealt with all the human consequences and issues which bioethics touches on. These deserve more

; he admired and followed the theological experience and the ascesis of the great Fathers of the Church. To this end, he was especially interested in the theology of the Great Fathers and defenders of Orthodoxy and of the Desert Fathers, while he sought to free contemporary Orthodox theology from the foreign influences of scholasticism and Western rationalism and return it to the pure sources of authentic patristic theology, which is a fight to confess and experience the real faith and redemption in the body of Christ the God-man, «which is the Church

who created the universe and all humankind50. 44 Ibidem, p. 164-165. 45 Thomas Halton (ed.), “Saint John Chrysostom, Homilies on Genesis 1-17”, in: idem, The Fathers of the Church, trans. by R. Hill , Washington D.C. 1985, p. 39. 46 Ibidem, p. 40. 47 Αυτόθι, p. 120. 48 See: Anastasios Chastoupis, Θρησκευτικά Οὐγαριτικά Κείμενα, (Religious Texts from Ugarit) Ἐν Ἀθήναις, 1972-1975. 49 V. Vellas, The Holy Bible, p. 49. 50 Stavros Kalantzakis, Ἑρμηνεία περικοπῶν τῆς Παλαιᾶς Διαθήκης, (Interpretation of Old Testament narratives), ἐκδ. Π. Πουρναρᾶ, Θεσσαλονίκη

never occupied themselves with ecclesiological problems. In the focus of the theological thought of the time of the ancient church, Christ was Himself the Son of God and the Son of man. The theological occupation with the person of the Holy Spirit was a log- ical continuation of Christological discussion, and defending the deity of the Son has led the Fathers of the church to the defence of the deity of the Spirit. The question about the nature of the church and its connection to the Holy Spirit did not bother anyone, but it is possible to find in these texts

: «paradigma de cambio o cambio de pa- radigma» (cien años después del Congreso Litúrgico de Montserrat 1915)”, in: Phase 327 (2015), p. 211-226. 189 The Perception of Sound in the Liturgy: Changes in Times of Change of these conclusions will underline the importance of paying attention to the contemporary world of sound and its solution, but only in outline. 1. The changing understanding of the “sacred” and the change in sacral understanding The Fathers of the Church discussed the appropriateness of music in the liturgy4. The category of sung praise, according to the

, most probably Father Dumitru Stăniloae, deliberates over the effects of the Reformation, and especially the creation of Protestantism which is always associated with the reform movement in the Church, and must be considered as a consequence of the Reformation. Secondly, Lutheranism must be considered a way of interpreting Christianity, Luther believing that his doctrine is consistent with the doctrine of the Old Church and that of the Holy Fathers of the Church. The Protestant theology cannot therefore be defined neg- atively, exclusively as a critique of

order has some specific aspects that are to be analysed espe- cially in light of the monastic Church Tradition influence. In the 1960’s the presence of Franciscan Friars and Orthodox monks influenced the develop- ment of the liturgical service of the Taizé community. The most well-known elements of the Taizé liturgical service are with- out any doubt the Taizé Songs.17 The Taizé songs are not usual Protestant, Catholic or Orthodox Church hymns but repetitive short phrases taken from the Bible, from the Fathers of the Church, from Liturgical Services (from all

texts. Among the most known are: Andrew Louth25, Sergey Hackel26, Ioannis Mourtzios27, Eugen Pentiuc28, Bogdan Bucur29 and Alexandru Ioniță30. But all these voices are still simply denunciations of the problem, none of them are a detailed analysis. Con- cerning the hymnography, B. Bucur and M. Azar have demonstrated that the problem is very complex and is related to the way Fathers of the Church have understood how to do biblical exegesis on biblical texts.31 Beyond any 23 See the contribution of Grigorios Larentzakis, “Die Erklärung des II. Vatikanums Nostra

allegory, see in detail: C. Kannengiesser (ed.), Handbook of Patristic Exegesis, vol. I, p. 212-242 (with contemporary bibliography). 37 William G. Moorehead, “Type” in: James Orr et al. (ed.), The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, V: Socket-Zuzim, Chicago 1915, p. 3029. 38 See: U. H. Eriksen, Drama in the Kontakia, p. 121. 395 “From Adam to Moses” 2. “From Adam to Moses”: typological images in Romanos’s kontakia 2.1 Adam is the typological image of Christ, a customary type throughout the patristic thought39. Used also with other Fathers of the Church

be married to the Orthodox party promises to convert to the Orthodox faith. If anyone transgresses this decree of the sacred synod, let him be subject to a canonical penalty.61 As we can observe from its text, Canon 14 of the Council of Chalcedon reaf- firms all the previous canonical decisions regarding mixed marriage. It is im- probable that the Fathers of the Church were influenced by the canon of Car- thage, but what it is more likely is that they knew the decisions of the Council of Laodicea, taking into consideration that its decisions were part of the