emphasize further the richness of ideas gathered in many “funeral orations” in
Byzantium, where some notable arguments are expressed. A “funeral oration”
in classical thought was already a way of communally dealing with death and
suffering. In fact this aspect has not been given any attention by contempo-
rary theologians. As we have implied, while the FathersoftheChurch, for
example, did not deal with modern issues of bioethics, they in fact dealt with
all the human consequences and issues which bioethics touches on. These
he admired and followed the theological experience and the ascesis of the
great FathersoftheChurch. To this end, he was especially interested in the
theology of the Great Fathers and defenders of Orthodoxy and of the Desert
Fathers, while he sought to free contemporary Orthodox theology from the
foreign influences of scholasticism and Western rationalism and return it to
the pure sources of authentic patristic theology, which is a fight to confess and
experience the real faith and redemption in the body of Christ the God-man,
«which is the Church
who created the universe and all humankind50.
44 Ibidem, p. 164-165.
45 Thomas Halton (ed.), “Saint John Chrysostom, Homilies on Genesis 1-17”, in: idem, The
FathersoftheChurch, trans. by R. Hill , Washington D.C. 1985, p. 39.
46 Ibidem, p. 40.
47 Αυτόθι, p. 120.
48 See: Anastasios Chastoupis, Θρησκευτικά Οὐγαριτικά Κείμενα, (Religious Texts from
Ugarit) Ἐν Ἀθήναις, 1972-1975.
49 V. Vellas, The Holy Bible, p. 49.
50 Stavros Kalantzakis, Ἑρμηνεία περικοπῶν τῆς Παλαιᾶς Διαθήκης, (Interpretation of Old
Testament narratives), ἐκδ. Π. Πουρναρᾶ, Θεσσαλονίκη
never occupied themselves
with ecclesiological problems. In the focus of the theological thought of the
time of the ancient church, Christ was Himself the Son of God and the Son of
man. The theological occupation with the person of the Holy Spirit was a log-
ical continuation of Christological discussion, and defending the deity of the
Son has led the Fathersofthechurch to the defence of the deity of the Spirit.
The question about the nature of the church and its connection to the Holy
Spirit did not bother anyone, but it is possible to find in these texts
: «paradigma de cambio o cambio de pa-
radigma» (cien años después del Congreso Litúrgico de Montserrat 1915)”, in: Phase 327
(2015), p. 211-226.
The Perception of Sound in the Liturgy: Changes in Times of Change
of these conclusions will underline the importance of paying attention to the
contemporary world of sound and its solution, but only in outline.
1. The changing understanding of the “sacred” and the change in
The FathersoftheChurch discussed the appropriateness of music in
the liturgy4. The category of sung praise, according to the
, most probably Father Dumitru
Stăniloae, deliberates over the effects of the Reformation, and especially the
creation of Protestantism which
is always associated with the reform movement in the Church,
and must be considered as a consequence of the Reformation.
Secondly, Lutheranism must be considered a way of interpreting
Christianity, Luther believing that his doctrine is consistent with
the doctrine of the Old Church and that of the Holy FathersoftheChurch. The Protestant theology cannot therefore be defined neg-
atively, exclusively as a critique of
order has some specific aspects that are to be analysed espe-
cially in light of the monastic Church Tradition influence. In the 1960’s the
presence of Franciscan Friars and Orthodox monks influenced the develop-
ment of the liturgical service of the Taizé community.
The most well-known elements of the Taizé liturgical service are with-
out any doubt the Taizé Songs.17 The Taizé songs are not usual Protestant,
Catholic or Orthodox Church hymns but repetitive short phrases taken
from the Bible, from the FathersoftheChurch, from Liturgical Services
texts. Among the most known
are: Andrew Louth25, Sergey Hackel26, Ioannis Mourtzios27, Eugen Pentiuc28,
Bogdan Bucur29 and Alexandru Ioniță30. But all these voices are still simply
denunciations of the problem, none of them are a detailed analysis. Con-
cerning the hymnography, B. Bucur and M. Azar have demonstrated that
the problem is very complex and is related to the way FathersoftheChurch
have understood how to do biblical exegesis on biblical texts.31 Beyond any
23 See the contribution of Grigorios Larentzakis, “Die Erklärung des II. Vatikanums Nostra
allegory, see in detail: C.
Kannengiesser (ed.), Handbook of Patristic Exegesis, vol. I, p. 212-242 (with contemporary
37 William G. Moorehead, “Type” in: James Orr et al. (ed.), The International Standard Bible
Encyclopaedia, V: Socket-Zuzim, Chicago 1915, p. 3029.
38 See: U. H. Eriksen, Drama in the Kontakia, p. 121.
“From Adam to Moses”
2. “From Adam to Moses”: typological images in Romanos’s kontakia
2.1 Adam is the typological image of Christ, a customary type
throughout the patristic thought39. Used also with other FathersoftheChurch
be married to the
Orthodox party promises to convert to the Orthodox faith. If anyone
transgresses this decree of the sacred synod, let him be subject to a
As we can observe from its text, Canon 14 of the Council of Chalcedon reaf-
firms all the previous canonical decisions regarding mixed marriage. It is im-
probable that the FathersoftheChurch were influenced by the canon of Car-
thage, but what it is more likely is that they knew the decisions of the Council
of Laodicea, taking into consideration that its decisions were part of the