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Marcin Komańda

Management, 16(4), 617-636. Andreeva, T., & Kianto, A. (2011). Knowledge processes, knowledge-intensity and innovation: a moderated mediation analysis. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(6), 1016-1034. Barrett, A., & O'Connell, P. J. (2001). Does training generally work? The returns to in-company training. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(3), 647-662. Billett, S. (2001). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin. Dalkir, K., & Liebowitz, J. (2011

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Paweł Słomiński and Aleksandra Nowacka

References 1. Sozański H., Sadowski J., Czerwiński J. (eds) (2015). Fundamentals of sports training theory and technology, vol. 2. Warszawa-Biała Podlaska: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish] 2. Siewierski M., Słomiński P., Białecki R. (2006). Checking the training status and selection of training loads. Optimising training loads based on the example of the national and Olympic swimming team. Kultura Fizyczna 9-12, 48-52. [in Polish] 3. Siewierski M. (2007b). Competitive performance of elite swimmers vs. number of

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Marek Strzała, Andrzej Ostrowski and Zbigniew Szyguła

References Bailey DM, Davies B. Physiological implications of altitude training for endurance performance at sea level: a review. Br J Sports Med, 1997; 3:183-90. Beguin, Y. The soluble transferrin receptor: biological aspects and clinical usefulness as quantitative measure of erythropoiesis. Haematologica, 1992; 77: 1-10. Czuba M, Waskiewicz Z, Zajac A, et al. The effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists. Journal of Sports

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Liudmila Dulksnienė, Sigutė Stankevičienė, Irmantas Ramanauskas and Laima Šarkauskienė


The changing approach to a physician’s profession brings about changes in the professional education and training of family physicians as well as in their continuous qualification improvement. For this reason, during the reformation of Lithuania’s primary healthcare system, not only alterations in family physicians’ activity, but also the changes in their education and training and the updating and improvement of their curriculum were seen as priority areas.

The aim of the study was to reveal and compare resident physicians’ attitude to the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians based on the traditional and problem-based learning systems at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (subsequently, LSMU).

The study on the professional education and training of family physicians was conducted in 2005 and in 2015. The quantitative study was carried out via a written questionnaire survey. The studied population consisted of resident physicians who were studying family medicine at the LSMU.

The analysis of the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians showed that resident physicians acquired sufficient knowledge and skills in the fields of disease diagnostics and treatment, qualification improvement, disease prevention, and teamwork organization. Resident physicians had insufficient skills to adapt to new conditions of activity, and their studies did not develop creative thinking. The problem-based learning (PBL) system helps future family physicians to develop essential competences and to acquire knowledge and skills required for the career of a family physician.

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Dragana Golik-Peric, Miodrag Drapsin, Borislav Obradovic and Patrik Drid

References Abe, T., DeHoyos, D. V., Pollock, M. L. & Garzarella L. (2000). Time cours for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 81 , 174-180. Akima, H., Takahashi, H., Kuno, S., Masuda, K., Masuda, T., Shimojo, H., Anno, I., Itai, Y. & Katsuta, S. (1999). Early phase adaptations of muscle use and strength to isokinetic training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31 , 588

Open access

Dana Sitányiová, Jean-Christophe Meunier and Jaroslav Mašek

.1 - Best practice on current and emerging training schemes, methodologies and tools in the transport sector and mapping to future training requirements and scenarios. Azhar, M., Mustapa, S. , Ibrahim, M., Yusoff, A. 2015 Engaging Vocational College Students through Blended Learning: Improving Class Attendance and Participation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 127-135. Canning, N. 2010 Playing with heutagogy: exploring strategies to empower mature learners in higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34

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Azman Ismail, Nurul Afiqah Foboy, Nur Atiqah Abdullah, Norazila Mat and Zafir Khan Mohamed Makhbul

References Arneson, J., Rothwell, W., & Naughton, J. 2013. Training and development competencies redefined to create competitive advantage. Training & Development 67(1): 42-47. Aziz, S. F. A., & Ahmad, S. 2011. Stimulating training motivation using the right training characteristic. Industrial and Commercial Training 43(1): 53-61. Azman, I. & Nurul, I. 2010. Motivasi latihan sebagai pembolehubah penghubung antara program latihan dan keberkesanan latihan. Jurnal Kemanusiaan 16: 83-98. Azman, I

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Anna Brachman, Anna Kamieniarz, Justyna Michalska, Michał Pawłowski, Kajetan J. Słomka and Grzegorz Juras

Introduction It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports, fall prevention programs for the elderly and rehabilitation programs. The objectives and benefits seem obvious, e.g., performance improvement and injury prevention as commonly cited goals ( Hrysomallis 2011 ; Kümmel et al., 2016 ; Lesinski et al., 2015 ). However, the type of training that is most efficient still remains unclear, and the frequency, intensity and duration of exercise that would be most beneficial

Open access

Iwona Janczarek, Anna Stachurska and Izabela Wilk

.,. Kennedy M., Marlin D. (2012). A comparison of the Monty Roberts technique with a conventional UK technique for initial training of riding horses. Anthrozoos, 25: 301–332. Górecka - Bruzda A., Jezierski T. (2010). Breed differences in behaviour related characteristics of stallions evaluated in performance tests. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 28: 27–36. Hausberger M., Muller C. (2002). A brief note on some possible factors involved in the reactions of horses to humans. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 76: 339–344. Hausberger M., Bruderer C., LeScolan N., Pierre J.-S. (2004

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Laimutė Anužienė and Vidmantas Tūtlys

-based Vocational and Professional Education. In M. Mulder (Ed.). Competence-based Vocational and Professional Education. Bridging the Worlds of Work and Education (pp. 125-144). Bern: Springer International Publishing. Bjørnåvold, J. (2000). Making learning visible: identification, assessment and recognition of non-formal learning.Thessaloniki: Cedefop, European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. Brockmann, M., Clarke, L., & Winch, C. (2011). Knowledge, skills and competences in the European labour market. What´s in a vocational