• Benedetto Giacomo and Milio Simona (eds), 2012, European Union Budget Reform. Institutions, Policy and Economic Crisis , Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
• Buti Marco and Nava Mario, 2008, ‘“Constrained Flexibility” as a Tool to Facilitate Reform of the EU Budget’ in Economic Papers 326, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, European Commission.
• Cipriani Gabriele, 2007, Rethinking the EU Budget. Three Unavoidable Reforms , Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels.
• Committee of the Regions, 2016, ‘Opinion on the mid
Mechanism as a Tool for Inter-Level Dialogue in Belgium: on ‘Regional Blindness’ and Cooperative Flaws’, European Constitutional Law Review, VII(2): 204-228.
Russell Meg, 2000, Reforming the House of Lords: Lessons from Overseas, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sharman Campbell, 1987, ‘Second Chamber’, in Bakvis Herman and Chandler William M. (eds), Federalism and the role of the State, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 57-81.
Stengers Jean, 1990, ‘Les caractères généraux de l’évolution du Sénat depuis 1831’, in La
Arrangements and Case Law, Hart Publishing, Oxford - Portland, Oregon.
Palermo Francesco and Nicolini Matteo, 2013, Il bicameralismo, Edizioni scientifiche italiane, Napoli.
Popelier Patricia and Lemmens Koen, 2015, The Constitution of Belgium, Hart Publishing, Oxford - Portland, Oregon.
Popelier Patricia and Vandenbruwaene Werner, 2017, ‘The Subsidiarity Mechanism as a Tool for Inter-Level-Dialogue in Belgium: On “Regional Blindness” and Co-operative Flaws’, European Constitutional Law Review, VII: 204
Werner Vandenbruwaene, Patricia Popelier and Christine Janssens
• Popelier Patricia & Cantillon Bea, 2013, ‘Bipolar Federalism and the Social Welfare State: A Case for Shared Competences’, Publius , XLIII(4): 626-647.
• Popelier Patricia & Vandenbruwaene Werner, 2011, ‘The Subsidiary Mechanism as a Tool for Inter-Level Dialogue in Belgium: on 'Regional Blindness' and Cooperative Flaws’ European Constitutional Law Review , VII(2): 204-228.
• Prete Luca & Smulders Ben, 2010, ‘The Coming of Age of Infringement Procedures’, Common Market Law Review , XLVII(1): 9-61.
• Puttler Adelheid, 2008
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
municipalities, water management, supervision of infrastructural work, involvement in welfare and health arrangements, and the monitoring of economic developments. We foreground the ›little tools of knowledge‹, such as periodical reports, circulars, statistical investigations, handbooks, and the like, to capture the administrative mentality of the officials in action. Our choice of sources has been inspired by Peter Becker / William Clark (ed.): Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001. It is the thick description and
A Long Normative History of a Statistical Category in the U.K
that circulation shapes knowledge. Knowledge circulates between different historical actors with different agendas and thus forms an important element in producing knowledges. For the idea of circulating knowledge, see Philipp Sarasin, »Was ist Wissensgeschichte?«, in: Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 36 (2011), p. 159–172. In the case of the ›Head of Household‹ it was one specific tool that circulated between different historical actors and produced knowledge.
This specific tool leads us to the administrative component of the
their works, in two complementary ways. First, this critical approach enables them to understand the position they occupy in the academic field, thus creating awareness that can lead them to question the intellectual categories they have used to study administrative history as well as their research practices. Second, the theory of fields provides the intellectual tools to conduct empirical studies that present generalizable conclusions. If this has been a goal more easily achieved in the social sciences, historical studies have struggled more with the possibility of
consist of placing the emphasis on operations and cultural techniques, as they rely on symbols, persons, and material artifacts, interchange them, and are responsible for investigating and punishing someone as a querulous person. Of course, a media history of the excessive sense of justice deals with people who are labeled querulous – that goes without saying. However, one dare not fall into the trap of overlooking the cultural tools and media which are hidden behind litigious paranoia.
The ›Creation‹ of Querulanten
Before querulency was investigated as a form of
of the vaccine story: the organisation of administrative correspondence, the censorship of medical information, the forms furnished by the administration for registering vaccinations, or the engravings of vaccine pustules. It is through these »details«, these »little tools of knowledge« Peter Becker, William Clark, »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker, William Clark (eds.), Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, p. 1–34. that the proof of vaccine’s perfection was administered and biopolitics exercised
between public service and subjects and between state and society. I use this concept to pinpoint the situational, interactional character of communication that neither extended to an emotional community nor comprised an emotional space. The participants in these interactions shared emotional situations but could belong to different emotional communities defined by generation, class and education. On emotional community as a conceptual tool, cf. Barbara H. Rosenwein: »Problems and Methods in the History of Emotions«, in: Passions in Context 1 (2010), pp. 1–32, at pp. 10