Andreas Farwick, Heike Hanhörster, Isabel Ramos Lobato and Wiebke Striemer
Employment status (bridging tie)
a) = minor assistance; b) = major assistance; c) = emotional support; d) = formal assistance (e.g. help in filling out forms); e) = help in finding a new place to live; f) = help in finding a job
The qualitative interviews additionally illustrate that forms of minor assistance, like lending food or tools (‘getting-by’ resources), are readily provided in most blocks of flats
The issue of city modelling is very essential these days and it is important to analyse the legal framework and its practical implications in the process of city modelling. However, the practice of urban design in Lithuania is based on two-dimensional solutions and the artistic factor is overlooked. The article reviews the legal basis of Lithuanian urban planning and design and their practical implications and emphasizes the necessity of artistic factor during the process of city modelling.
market that limited the scope for speculating on property.
The article’s objective is to present the assumptions of the gentrification approach as a tool that is possibly useful for the purposes of evaluating urban policy. Gentrification seems to be one of the most important contemporary urban processes, even though it is judged in different ways. Plenty of public actions, including those performed by public sector, privately-owned companies and grassroots movements, seem to have an effect on the emergence of this process. Gentrification, understood as a
Challenges for Spatial and Urban Planning in Dealing with Vulnerability
Jörn Birkmann, Claudia Bach and Maike Vollmer
Five years after the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan, and in the light of the ongoing negotiations on a post-Kyoto protocol, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change are increasingly being discussed within the field of spatial and urban development in Germany. Also at the European and the global level spatial and urban planning are receiving more attention as important fields and tools for climate change adaptation, particularly regarding mega-urban, urban and peri-urban areas (see EC 2007a ; EC 2009 ; IPCC 2012a
The concept of urban gardening varies a lot in terms of gardening forms and main purposes. Followed by changes in people life style, growing interest in healthy living and sustainable urban development, the aims of urban gardening become more complex. The product of urban garden, e. g. vegetables or ornamental plants, nowadays plays less important role, as the main focus is on societal issues, urban regeneration, education and health. Thus, this article provides evidence of multi-functionality of urban gardening to address the variety of societal issues across people of different age and cultural background. Case studies from Malmo, Birmingham and Riga show how urban gardening contributes to social integration, inhabitants’ well-being and urban regeneration.
A Regionalist Panorama for Architecture and Beyond [online]
[cited 30.01.2013]. http://www.metropolitiques.eu/A-Regionalist-Panorama-for.html .
Buckner, B. The comparative identity of nations : image of nation as an assessment tool of national identity [online]. ProQuest 2011 [cited 19.09.2014]. http://www.proquest.com/products-services/dissertations/
The comparative identity of nations : image of nation as an assessment tool of national identity [online]
[cited 19.09.2014]. http
Ingrida Povilaitienė, Jūratė Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė and Kęstutis Zaleckis
., Oskrochi, R. Fractal Analysis of Street Vistas: A Potential Tool for Assessing Levels of Visual Variety in Everyday Street Scenes. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design , 2008, Vol. 35, pp. 349‒363. https://doi.org/10.1068/b33081
11. Cole, M. Cultural Psychology: A Once and Future Discipline . Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998. 416 p.
12. Zaleckis, K., Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, J., Ramanauskas, E . Preservation of Kaunas City Identity while Planning its Urban Development. Ecological architecture 2013: Book of
It is particularly important for the French political leadership to maintain French independence, to develop military defense capabilities and to maintain a balance between budgetary constraints. The publication presents a European way of continuously modernizing the French army and modernizing its technical tools. France has one of the strongest and most powerful armed forces characterized by adapting NATO-based applications and procedures.
This article discusses the usage of advanced modeling techniques in architectural design education from the viewpoint of CAD/CAM paradigm that is setting new standards for the teaching and the industry. Parametricism is one of the main driving forces in architecture that exercises complexity possible only through 3D modeling tools and using generative algorithms. Most of the design skills are being learned by applying the obtained knowledge in academic design projects and their supplementary classes.
The tools of multi-directional machining, having appeared in the recent years, have revolutionised turning operations. The chip removal of high feed roughing and finishing inserts is so specialised, that new formulas have to be introduced instead of those used so far. In this paper, the result of tests carried out up till now will be summarised; furthermore, a proposal will be made on the description, analysis and calculation of force demand of multi-directional inserts as well as the roughness of the surface being prepared during machining.