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less by ideology than the relative constraints of clerical workflows, the documentation requirements of reporting upwards, or the written eloquence of the accused in narrating their own culpability. The resulting misunderstandings and indignities that filled Lin Zhongshu’s dossier were less indicative of the ineffectiveness of the authorities than the awkward fit between the tools and methods of bureaucratic investigation with respect to the social phenomena they purported to capture. As is often the case with microhistories, in studying dossiers, we often find

vaccine story: the organisation of administrative correspondence, the censorship of medical information, the forms furnished by the administration for registering vaccinations, or the engravings of vaccine pustules. It is through these »details«, these »little tools of knowledge« Peter Becker, William Clark, »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker, William Clark (eds.), Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, p. 1–34. that the proof of vaccine’s perfection was administered and biopolitics exercised. This articles

operations and cultural techniques, as they rely on symbols, persons, and material artifacts, interchange them, and are responsible for investigating and punishing someone as a querulous person. Of course, a media history of the excessive sense of justice deals with people who are labeled querulous – that goes without saying. However, one dare not fall into the trap of overlooking the cultural tools and media which are hidden behind litigious paranoia. The ›Creation‹ of Querulanten Before querulency was investigated as a form of insanity, it was a bureaucratic problem

quantifiable change in mood and sentiment across translations in documents, Whelchel and Fellbaum speak of »misconstrued communications«, which the administration seeks to overcome. John Whelchel / Christiane Fellbaum: »Sentiment Analysis of Foreign Documents to Detect Translation Bias. Misconstrued Communications in the European Parliament«, Independent Work Report Spring 2014, online at: http://www.johnwhelchel.com/static/mysite/index/IWBiases.pdf (1. 8. 2018). Algorithms become its tool of international sentiment expression alignment. Whatever the purpose and chosen

decision and ordered to „issue a by-law for lower rank authorities to treat this religious organization as a legally recognized denomination”20. Instead of publishing ordinance in Journal of Laws or by-law in the Official Journal of the Ministry of Pub- lic Administration, a press information was issued 17 K. Białecki, The National Church in Poland between 1944 and 1965, Poznań 2003, [further: K. Białecki, The Na- tional Church] p. 48–49. 18 J. Dziobek-Romański, The Recognition of Religious Organizations in Poland (1944–1989) as a Tool of Discrimi- nation Policy

public service and subjects and between state and society. I use this concept to pinpoint the situational, interactional character of communication that neither extended to an emotional community nor comprised an emotional space. The participants in these interactions shared emotional situations but could belong to different emotional communities defined by generation, class and education. On emotional community as a conceptual tool, cf. Barbara H. Rosenwein: »Problems and Methods in the History of Emotions«, in: Passions in Context 1 (2010), pp. 1–32, at pp. 10

Krieger für das Königreich Böhmen, Reg. Rat Marschner. As the monarchy was dependent on civil society actors to sustain its welfare efforts, they enjoyed considerable leeway in putting welfare measures into effect. While historiography has mostly focused on the repressive elements of wartime bureaucracy, the issue of trust shows how imperial elites, and also nationalist activists, tried to use administrative structures to foster and sustain different feelings of social belonging. Whether there were attempts similar to Eger’s at making welfare administration a tool for

they are mere tools for governments’ control over population. Habits of documenting actually penetrate the everyday life of individuals, shaping the forms that some social relations will take and orienting people’s agency. Therefore, taking the formalities and material aspects of documents seriously can elucidate important aspects of repetitive practices and routine procedures that might actually play a more important role in the ›production of truth‹ than the actual content of files. The ›truth‹ of documents is not necessarily a result of their capacity to

. Essays, Leipzig 2008. Zwar enthalten Akten verschiedener Behörden häufig Briefe und protokollierte Aussagen Vgl. dazu etwa etwa Becker, »Sprachvollzug«, S. 17; Peter Becker, William Clark, »Introduction«, in: Dies. (Hg.), Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, S.1–34. jener, die auf solche Weisen einen Lebensunterhalt finden wollten, selten oder kaum hingegen finden sich lebensgeschichtliche Schilderungen solcher Praktiken, die unabhängig von diesem behördlichen Kontext entstanden sind. Abgesehen vom

: »Beschreiben«, S. 397–400; Holenstein: »Gute Policey und Information des Staates«, S. 205–206; Peter Becker / William Clark: »Introduction«, in: Peter Becker / William Clark (Hg.): Little Tools of Knowledge. Historical Essays on Academic and Bureaucratic Practices, Ann Arbor 2001, S. 1–34. Zur Information als Kategorie historischer Forschung vgl. Arndt Brendecke / Markus Friedrich / Susanne Friedrich: »Information als Kategorie historischer Forschung. Heuristik, Etymologie und Abgrenzung vom Wissensbegriff«, in: Arndt Brendecke / Markus Friedrich / Susanne Friedrich (Hg