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George J. Avlonitis

Summary

There is no doubt that a recession is an extremely difficult period for most companies. Especially when a recession has universal dimensions, many companies find themselves unprepared to face great challenges. While marketing in good times has a long-term focus, a broad scope, it is benefits- and opportunities-driven and proactive, in bad times it has a short-term focus, limited and narrow scope, it is cost-and sales-driven and reactive.

Panic is not the right reaction. Such difficult times should be overcome through methodical and well planned actions. After all, research has shown that those companies that take a proactive stance and treat the recession as an opportunity are likely to come out of the crisis stronger than before.

Specific marketing activities have been proved to be beneficial to companies during a downturn. Below we analyze, ten marketing survival strategies and tactics.

Open access

Milan Sopóci and Lubomír Matta

Abstract

The article deals with the settlement of the Ground Forces in history to the present day. It confronts this information with actual trends of development of some branches of the armed forces, weapons systems, techniques, and new requirements on tactics, combat and operational use. From the armed conflicts in the last years which took place in Irak, Afghanistan, Islam state, we can conclude that the crucial tasks in battles and conflicts require the involvement of forces from other branches (Air forces, Special forces). The paper focuses on the necessity and importance of providing more and more intelligence, education, preparation and global more knowledge for regular soldiers.

Open access

Paulo Henrique Borges, Sean Cumming, Enio R.V. Ronque, Felippe Cardoso, Ademar Avelar, Leandro Rechenchosky, Israel Teoldo da Costa and Wilson Rinaldi

study demonstrate the importance of training experience in technical and tactical development in youth soccer. Collectively, the Yo-Yo test, the Counter Movement Jump, abdominal strength, and body mass predicted 33% of the variance in defensive tactical performance of 12-17 year-old soccer players. It is possible that the strongest players were encouraged by coaches to adopt more defensive roles and tactics, as greater body size and physical strength contribute to an advantage in the defensive system, since invasion sports are characterized by intense physical

Open access

Felipe Arruda Moura, Juliana Exel Santana, Nathália Arnosti Vieira, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago and Sergio Augusto Cunha

References Barros RML, Cunha SA, Magalhães Jr. WJ, Guimarães MF. Representation and analysis of soccer players’ actions using principal components. J Hum Movement Stud, 2006; 51: 103-116 Barros RML, Misuta MS, Menezes RP, Figueroa PJ, Moura FA, Cunha SA, Anido R, Leite NJ. Analysis of the distances covered by first division Brazilian soccer players obtained with an automatic tracking method. J Sports Sci Med, 2007; 6: 233-242 Bate R. Football chance: tactics and strategy. Science and Football. E & FN SPON, 293-301; 1988 Bourbousson J

Open access

Ivan Avramov

References [1] Vuchkov, V. (2006). Publishing House Sofia Feneia Evidences in the criminal proceedings, pp. 73-76. [2] Tsekov, Ts. Publishing: Science and Art (1971). Tactics of identification in the pre-trial proceedings, pp. 56-58 [3] Bobev, K. (2006). Publishing House "St. Kliment Ohridski" Criminalistics, pp. 222-224. [4] Belenski, R. (2008). Ciela Publishing House Criminalistics. [5] Brus, B. & Horgan J. (2001). Ciela Publishing House Criminalistics.

Open access

Frowin Fasold and Dennis Redlich

, every team was only allowed to participate in a maximum of two games. Design and Procedures To avoid game-effects occurring at the beginning or the end of a match such as testing the limits of the referees (e.g. permitted hardness in body contacts), fatigue effects, personal duels or crunch-time-factors (e.g. special team tactics like one-on-one defence), we only analysed the actions between the 10 th and 20 th minute of each game. Only the attacks against organized defences in 6 vs. 6 situations were considered. Furthermore, only such situations were taken

Open access

Mariusz Frączek, Piotr Hevelke, Krzysztof Komorzycki, Marcin Kotulski, Piotr Kalinowski, Barbara Górnicka and Marek Krawczyk

Esophagogastric Junction Versus Gastric Carcinoma - Implications for Surgical Tactics on the Basis of Own Experience

The exact prevalence and results of treatment of the carcinoma of esophagogastric junction (gastric cardia) are difficult to assess, and the data concerning thereof, presented in different series of patients, are frequently inconsistent. This phenomenon may result from terminological mess, resulting in different comprehension of the sole term "esophagogastric junction". That can be why the results of treatment of patients with this type of cancer are dispersed in the literature and may be as well found under "esophageal", as well as "gastric cancer" headings.

The aim of the study was to present the current view of the pathogenesis, pathology and terminological issues concerning this tumor, interesting at least for its localization at the border of two viscera and two body cavities. On the basis of our own material, we also tried to delineate the implications of such a localization to surgical tactics.

Material and methods. The patients with esophagogastric junction and more peripherally located gastric cancer were analysed in two groups, according to the date of resectional surgery performed: From 1989 to 1998 (group I), and from 1999 to 2005 (group II). In each group the patients with esophagogastric junction and peripheral gastric cancer were investigated separately. The influence of more aggressive approach to cardial cancer (additional thoracotomy approach) in group II patients on the cancer free tissue margin, number of metastatic lymph nodes excised, as well as on survival rate during a 5-years follow-up was assessed.

Results. The results show, that the additional thoracotomy, despite the increase in postoperative complications rate (mainly affecting the respiratory system- 19 vs 4.3% at laparotomy alone), did not influence the perioperative motality in our patients (approximately 5% in all subgroups). Despite the additional thoracotomy approach, facilitating the safe lower esophageal resection, the cancer free margins of the excised specimens remained unsatisfactory (the target safe margin value of 7 cm), although some improvement can be noted as compared with group I patients. The interesting finding was, that the survival rates following gastrectomy for ‘peripheral’ gastric carcinoma has been remaining practically unchanged during the 20 years of this study. Survival rates following gastric cardia resection improved in group II patients, but the differences did not reach the statistically significant level. The difference in survival rate was increasing with time in favor of group II patients, its value being triple at 5 years from surgery (18 vs 6%) as compared with group I.

Conclusions. We see the need for the development of a method allowing to select the patients with good prognosis, in whom further radicalization of resectional procedures (and subsequent treatment) would be justified by long-term disease-free survival.

Open access

Judit Pieldner

Abstract

In close intratextual connection with earlier pieces of Jafar Panahi’s oeuvre, pre-eminently The Mirror (Ayneh, 1997) and Offside (2006), his recent films made in illegality, including This Is Not a Film (In film nist, Jafar Panahi and Mojtaba Mirtahmasb, 2011), Closed Curtain (Pardeh, Jafar Panahi and Kambuzia Partovi, 2013) and Taxi Tehran (Jafar Panahi, 2015), reformulate the relationship between cinema and the “real,” defying the limitations of filmmaking in astounding ways. The paper addresses the issue of non-cinema, pertaining to those instances of cinematic “impurity” in which “the medium disregards its own limits in order to politically interfere with the other arts and life itself” (Nagib 2016, 132). Panahi’s overtly confrontational (non-)cinematic discourse is an eminent example of “accented cinema” (Naficy 2001). His artisanal and secret use of the camera in deterritorialized conditions and extreme limitations as regards profilmic space – house arrest, fake taxi interior – gives way for multilayered reflexivity, incorporating non-actorial presence, performative self-filming and theatricality as subversive gestures, with a special emphasis on the off-screen and remediated video-orality performed in front of, or directly addressed to the camera. The paper explores the ways in which the filmmaker’s tactics become powerful gestures of “politicized immediacy” (Naficy 2001, 6) that call for the (inter)medial as an also indispensably political act ((Schröter 2010).

Open access

Bruno Završnik

Abstract

Negotiations are an integral part of our life, both personal as well as at business level. The negotiations are old just as much as the human race and covering all human activities. They are the most complex forms of relationships between people, which represent a number of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills. The secret of successful negotiations is usually good prepared of the negotiators. Negotiations do not begin when we meet with opposite negotiator, but much earlier. The purpose of this study was to find out the negotiations in practice, what the negotiators, the Slovenian managers how to prepare for negotiations, how to negotiate, what negotiating tactics used, what personal qualities emphasize in the negotiations and, and finally how to evaluate themselves as negotiators

Open access

Kateřina Mildnerová

Abstract

The article aims at legal and illegal activities of Lusaka´s traditional healers within the system of traditional medicine which is primarily anchored in the constitution of traditional healers´ associations. It primarily focuses on witch-finders, whose social status, professional position and authority is constantly negotiated within the formal and informal sector of traditional medicine. Since the late 1990s, the quest for services of traditional healers specialised in witch-finding has gained popularity, particularly amongst the impoverished Lusaka compound-dwellers. Due to the increasing public violence against those denoted as witches, the activities of witch-finders were officially banned by the Witchcraft Act in 1995 and this profession is not officially recognised by the Constitution of Traditional Health Practitioners Association of Zambia (THAPAZ). In spite of the prohibition, there remain many witch-finders in Lusaka who practise witch-finding secretly, in order not to commit an offence they do not openly denounce the name of an alleged witch. Their authority and credibility is threatened by many “official” as well as “unofficial” competitors in the city and it must be constantly reaffirmed and negotiated by introducing innovations. The ability to keep clients and to gain a good reputation thus depends on the originality of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. At the same time witch-finders must counter diverse obstacles and uncertainties resulting from their illegal status within the sector of traditional medicine. The author analyses tactics that Lusaka´s witch-finders have developed and employed to negotiate their social status, credibility and authority visà-vis the competition from the “official” traditional healers.