REFERENCES  G. Stolte, Secondary metallurgy – fundamentals processes applications, 2002 Woodhead Publishing, Dusseldorf.  A. Ghosh, Secondary steelmaking; principles and application, 2000 CRC Press USA.  Technical Information, ZM “ROPCZYCE” S.A., 2015.  Technical Information, RHI AG, 2015.  Y. Pan, B. Björkman, J. of the Iron & Steel Inst. of Japan Inter. 41 (6), 614-623 (2002).  D. Guo, G.A. Irons, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 31B (10), 1447-1455 (2011).  B. Panic, Metalurgija 52 (2), 177-180 (2013
T. Merder, J. Pieprzyca, M. Warzecha and P. Warzecha
J. Jowsa and A. Cwudziński
References R. Koitzsch, M. Warzecha, A. Rueckert, H. Pfeifer, Physical and mathematical simulation of the inclusion removal and determination of the deposition rate for the continuous casting process, ECCC 2008 Conf. Proceeding, Riccione, Italy 2008. A. Rueckert, M. Warzecha, R. Koitzsch, M. Pawlik, H. Pfeifer, Particle distribution and separation in continuous casting tundish, Steel Research International 80 , 568-574 (2009). A. Cwudziński, J. Jowsa, Numerical simulation of steel
L. Sowa and A. Bokota
References  R. Pardeshi, S. Basak, A.K. Singh, B. Basu, V. Mahashabde, S.K. Roy, S. Kumar, Mathematical modeling of the tundish of a single-strand slab caster, ISIJ International 44 , 9, 1534-1540 (2004).  A. Cwudziński, J. Jowsa, Numerical analysis of liquid steel flow structure in the one strand slab tundish with subflux turbulence controller and dam, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 57 , 1, 297-301 (2012).  S. López-Ramírez, J. De, J. Barreto, P. Vite-Martínez, J
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J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder, M. Saternus and H. Kania
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M. Bielnicki, J. Jowsa and A. Cwudziński
The paper reports the results of numerical simulation of the flow of liquid steel with the use of a multiphase model. The facility under study was a mould designed for continuous casting of steel slabs. The geometry of the facility, along with the computational grid, was generated within the program Ansys-MeshingR. Numerical computations were performed in the programs: COMSOL Multiphysics¯ and Ansys-Fluent¯. The use of the multiphase model enabled the determination of the behavior of the liquid slag layer on the metal bath surface. From the performed computer simulations, the fields of liquid steel motion and liquid steel turbulence kinetic energy distribution in the mould's symmetry plane have been presented. Based on the values recorded at selected measurement points located on the slag surface, a diagram illustrating the variation of the slag layer position during continuous steel casting has been plotted.
. Rywotycki, K. Miłkowska-Piszczek, L. Trębacz, Archiv. of Metall. and Mater. 57, 385-393 (2012).  A. Cwudziński, Ironmaking Steelmaking 37, 169-180 (2010). L. Bulkowski, U. Galisz, H. Kania, Z. Kudliński, J. Pieprzyca, J. Barański, Archiv. of Metall. and Mater. 57, 363-369 (2012).  A. Cwudziński, J. Jowsa, Archiv. of Metall. and Mater. 53, 749-761, (2008).  X.-M. Yang, S.-X. Liu, J.-S. Jiao, M. Zhang, J.-P. Duan, L. Li and C.-Z. Liu, Steel Res. 83, 269-287 (2012).  V. Singh, S. K. Ajmani, A. R
Depth-Profiles of Corrosion Properties of Carbonitrided AISI 405 Steel
Electrochemical polarisation characteristics of AISI 405 type stainless steel, carbonitrided in fluid flow, are presented. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance of carbonitrided stainless steel was carried out by using the so called progressive thinning method, consisting in determination of polarisation characteristics on increasingly-deeper situated regions of the top layer. This method made it possible to determine changes in particular corrosion parameters read out from potentiokinetic polarisation curves, thus enabling the depth profiles of these parameters. The resistance of the AISI 405 steel against acid corrosion was determined in acidified 0.5M sulphate solutions having three different pH values, namely 1, 2 and 4. The thickness of the carbonitrided layer has been evaluated on the basis of the spectrophotometric analysis of carbon content and microhardness on the cross section of the surfacial layer.
J. Marcisz and J. Stępień
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The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the liquid steel flow in a tundish are presented in this paper. The problem was treated as a complex and solved by the finite element method. One takes into consideration in the mathematical model the changes of thermophysical parameters depending on the temperature. The single-strand tundish is used to casting slabs. The internal work space of the tundish was modified by flow control devices. The first device was a pour pad situated in the pouring tundish zone. The second device was a dam. The third device was a baffle with three holes. The dam and baffle were placed in the tundish at different positions depending on the variant. The main purpose of using these was to put barriers in the steel flow path as well as give directional metal flow upwards which facilitated inclusion floatation. The interaction of flow control devices on hydrodynamic conditions was received from numerical simulations. As a result of the computations carried out, the liquid steel flow and steel temperature fields were obtained. The influences of the tundish modifications on the velocity fields in liquid phase of the steel were estimated, because these have essential an influence on high-quality of a continuous steel cast slab.