children with ventricular preexcitation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2011; 4: 73-78. doi: 10.1161/CIRCEP.110.958660 21. Staikou C, Chondrogiannis K, Mani A. Perioperative management of hereditary arrhythmogenic syndromes. Br J Anaesth 2012; 108: 730-744 (doi: 10.1093/bja/aes105), and supplemental material (Table S1: Effects of commonly used anaesthetic drugs on cardiac electrophysiology) 22. Sharpe MD, Dobkowski WB, Murkin JM, Klein G, Yee R. Propofol has no direct effect on sinoatrial node function or on normal atrioventricular and
Chryssoula Staikou, Mattheos Stamelos and Eftyhios Stavroulakis
Daniela V. Caiado, João M. Lemos and Bertinho A. Costa
Control ToolboxTMUser’ Guide . The MathWorks, Inc., 2012.  T.W. BOUILLON, J. BRUHN, L. RADULESCU, C. ANDRESEN, T.J. SHAFER, C. CAROL and S.L. SHAFER: Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy. Anesthesiology , 100(6), (2004), 1353-1372.  G.A. DUMONT, A. MARTINEZ and J.M. ANSERMINO: Robust control of depth of anesthesia. Int. J. of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing , 23(5), (2009), 435
Antoņina Sondore, Sanita Ūdre, Jānis Nemme, Laimdota Grašiņa, Ieva Kruževņaka, Inta Matulēna, Vija Rozīte, Līga Mitre, Ivonna Vītola, Danuta Viskante, Juris Aprups, Anita Berga, Juris Bormotovs and Indulis Kokars
of Renal Transplantation (pp. 87-100) . New York, Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer-Verlag. de Gasperi, A., Mazza, E., Noe, L., Corti, A., Cristalli, A., Prosperi, M., Sabbadini, D., Savi, M. C., Vai, S. (1996). Pharmacokinetic profile of the induction dose of propofol in chronic renal failure patients undergoig renal transplantation. Minerva Anaesthesiol ., 62 , 25-31. Eger, E., 2nd, Koblin, D. D., Bowland, T., Ionescu, P., Laster, M.J., Fang, Z., Gong, D., Sonner, J., Weiskopf, R. B. (1977). Nephrotoxicity of sevoflurane versus
Somchai Amornyotin, Wichit Srikureja, Nonthalee Pausawasdi and Udom Kachintorn
. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133:675-701. 9. Clarke GA, Jacobson BC, Hammett RJ, Carr-Locke DL. The indications, utilization and safety of gastrointestinal endoscopy in an extremely elderly patient cohort. Endoscopy. 2001; 33:580-4. 10. Heuss LT, Schnieper P, Drewe J, Pflimlin E, Beglinger C. Conscious sedation with propofol in elderly patients: a retrospective evaluation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003; 17:1493-501. 11. Lagares-Garcia JA, Kurek S, Coller B, Diaz F, Schilli R, Richey J, et al. Colonoscopy in octogenarians and older
Davina Wildemeersch, Michiel Baeten, Natasja Peeters, Vera Saldien, Marcel Vercauteren and Guy Hans
stimulation during isoflurane and propofol anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1993; 76: 1072-1078 7. Larson MD, Sessler DI. Pupillometry to guide postoperative analgesia. Anesthesiology 2012; 116: 980-982. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318251d21b 8. Larson MD, Behrends M. Portable infrared pupillometry: a review. Anesth Analg 2015; 120: 1242-1253. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000314 9. Marsh B, White M, Morton N, Kenny GN. Pharmacokinetic model driven infusion of propofol in children. Br J Anaesth 1991; 67: 41-48. doi: 10.1093/bja/67
Maja Vasiljević, Dragan Ristanović, Milan Jovanović, Darko Davitkov, Ivan Bošnjak, Vanja Krstić and Zoran Stanimirović
: Romifidine or medetomidine premedication before propofol sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2005, 28(5): 489-493. 13. Lipták T, Capík I, Ledecký V, Nagy O, Kuricová M, Tóthová C, Maďari A, Farbáková J, Petrovič V, Horňák S: Cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic effects of medetomidine or xylazine with atropine and diazepam premedication for total intravenous anesthesia induced and maintained with propofol/fentanyl in dogs undergoing surgery. Acta Vet.-Beograd 2014, 64 (4): 466-476. 14. Vojvodic D, Miljanovic O, Djurdjevic D, Gataric S, Stanojevic
Marija Toleska, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Andrijan Kartalov, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Jasminka Nancheva, Aleksandar Dimitrovski and Natasha Toleska
, Zarychanski R, Moore L, McIntyre LA, Nicole PC, Fergusson DA. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain control: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Can J Anesth 2011; 58(1): 22–37. 13. Bakan M, Umutoglu T, Topuz U, Uysal H, Bayram M, Kadioglu H, Salihoglu Z. Opioid-free total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, dexmedetomidine and lidocaine infusions for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Rev Bras Anestesiol 2015; 65(3): 191–9. 14. Grape S, Tramèr MR. Do we need preemptive
Nicoleta Dumitrescu and Codrut Sarafoleanu
BACKGROUND. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) is a sleep apnea diagnostic procedure which allows direct view the obstruction while inducing sleep using analgosedation with propofol. Many studies highlighted the importance of DISE in finding the level of obstruction and choosing the specific treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed DISE under propofol sedation in 27 patients diagnosed with sleep apnea who addressed to our clinic for further investigation and treatment. We assessed the obstruction type and severity using the Fujita scale, VOTE (velum, oropharynx, tongue base, epiglottis) and NOHL (nose, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx). Finally, we correlated the DISE findings with the polysomnographic results.
RESULTS. We observed significant correlations between the obstruction severity seen at DISE and the polysomnographic results. Further, we could decide the appropriate treatment for our patients, whether surgical or not (continuous positive airway pressure - CPAP).
CONCLUSION. Sleep endoscopy represents a very important method in establishing the topographic diagnostic of sleep apnea patients, being useful for the therapeutic decision and the postoperative assessment. We recommend drug-induced sleep endoscopy as elective investigation regarding the diagnostic and treatment of sleep apnea patients.
Hülya Türkan, Ahmet Aydin, Ahmet Sayal, Ayşe Eken, Cemal Akay and Bensu Karahalil
Emerg Med 2002;20:79-82. Korenaga D, Takesue F, Kido K, Yasuda M, Inutsuka S, Honda M, Nagahama S. Impaired antioxidant defense system of colonic tissue and cancer development in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. J Surg Res 2002;102:144-9. Tsuchiya M, Asada A, Maeda K, Ueda Y, Sato EF, Shindo M, Inoue M. Propofol versus midazolam regarding their antioxidant activities. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:26-31. Eger IE. The pharmacology of inhaled anesthetics. In: Seminars in
Amina Selimović, Senka Dinarević, Tatjana Pejčić, Ermina Mujičić, Aida Hasanović, Siniša Ristić, Nataša Banjac and Željko Pavlović
Lymphocyte Subsets in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Children with Lung Infiltrates
The analysis of the subpopulation of lymphocytes - CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of paediatric patients can provide useful information related the lung parenchyma.
The aim of the paper was to analyze the results of bronchoscopy of patients presenting with persistent lung infiltrates and to find out of the diagnostic yield and complication rate of this procedure.
The study is a retrospective one. The data related to paediatric findings and BAL results of the bronchoscopies were retrieved from the hospital records. BAL was performed in tracheobronchial airways (middle lobe) by bronchoscope and sent to analysis of CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes. Bronchoscopy was performed under general anesthesia (sedation, propofol, midazolam, morphium).
The records of seven patients were analyzed. All patients presented with persistent lung infiltrate (atelectasis and pneumonia). 71% of the patients with lung infiltrates in our study were below the age of 5. Our study results showed that CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes in BAL in the studied group showed a small percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes as an immune response in 8-10% of patients, while the cellular response of CD4 +lymphocytes in the sample itself was present up to 14% in the entire group of the diseased children. There was no serious desaturation during bronchoscopy.
Bronchoscopy with BAL findings of lymphocyte populations is important in the early identification of inflammation and it helps in therapeutic strategies and monitoring of inflammatory response to the given therapy.