Abbott, Barbara (2000). Presuppositions as nonassertions. Journal of Pragmatics 32: 1419-1437.
Atlas, Jay David (2004). Presupposition. Horn, Laurence, Gregory Ward, eds. TheHandbook of Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell, 29-52.
Baker, Carl Leroy (1970). Double negatives. Linguistic Inquiry 1.2: 169-186.
Chandler, David (2000). Bosnia: Faking Democracy After Dayton (2nd edn.). London; Sterling, Virginia: Pluto Press.
Chilton, Paul, Christina Schäffner (2002). Themes and
Businesses are thought and seen at first only through the eyes of the owner-manager. But, inevitably, a company that wants to perform must re-evaluate its business from the customer’s point of view. A „Mysterious Client” study is only one of many pragmatic approaches.
This article aims to present the results of a Mystery Shopping research that was conducted in Iasi - one of the most important cities of Romania. We have observed six different stores using fifteen different persons - mysterious clients - in order to analyse the performance of each store. Te results of this qualitative research can be presented to the managers as the exact opinions of some clients that have really benefited from the services provided and are able to evaluate the quality of these services
In this paper I analyze the process by which modelers in systems biology arrive at an adequate representation of the biological structures thought to underlie data gathered from high-throughput experiments. Contrary to views that causal claims and explanations are rare in systems biology, I argue that in many studies of gene regulatory networks modelers aim at a representation of causal structure. In addressing modeling challenges, they draw on assumptions informed by theory and pragmatic considerations in a manner that is guided by an interventionist conception of causal structure. While doubts have been raised about the applicability of this notion of causality to complex biological systems, it is here seen to be an adequate guide to inquiry.
The present paper aims at giving an overview of the basic theories pertaining to the emergence and development of ergativity in Indo-Aryan. It has usually been argued that ergativity could have been derived either from the passive or the originally PIE ergative construction. In addition to these two basic approaches to ergativity in IA, other perspectives are also taken into consideration here, namely the theory which is based on the pragmatic properties of OIA, and the hypothesis of the possible borrowing from the substratum languages. The existing models of the historical scenarios of the emergence of ergativity in IA, including their later mutations, are confronted with the hypothesis of the possible active typology of PIE. The active residues in OIA and its continuants might prove that ergativity arose due to the transition from the PIE active to the nominative stage attested in the daughter languages.
: A focus on language in action. In K. P. Schneider and A. Barron (eds.). The pragmatics of Irish English, 2-15. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clark, Herbert. 1996. Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, David. 2006. Words, words, words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Farr, Fiona and Bróna Murphy. 2009. Religious references in contemporary Irish
, Zygmunt. 1976. Cechy składniowe polskiego czasownika . Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. Serratrice, Ludivica. 2013. The role of number of referents and animacy in children’s use of pronouns. Journal of Pragmatics 56. 31-42.
Sigurðsson, Halldor Armann. 2004. The syntax of person, tense, and speech features. Italian Journal of Linguistics 16. 219-251.
Sigurðsson, Halldor Armann. 2010. On EPP effects. Studia Linguistica 64. 158-189.
Sigurðsson, Halldor Armann. 2011. Conditions on argument drop. Linguistic Inquiry 42. 267
Agnieszka Dejnaka, Katarzyna Kulig-Moskwa, Krzysztof Łobos, Joanna Nogieć and Mirosława Szewczyk
The article examines the general attributes which are in use by clients (students) in the process of evaluation of non-public colleges of business profile in Poland. The evaluations are presented in comparison with other academic institutions having the same profile, both independent and public ones. In the research part, the method of factor analysis was used with the aim of distinguishing the general values which are in students’ use. The most important conclusion resulting from the work is that students of non-public colleges perceive two basic types of attributes regarding a business school, that is practical and academic assets, yet they are most clearly governed by a more pragmatic than academic system of values and choose colleges which – beyond any doubt – offer the model of vocational teaching supported by practice.
The aim of the article is to present cognitive challenges in the area of management. Researchers and reflective managers still work on the identity of management belonging to the social sciences. The paper depicts the connections between cognitive problems (from the epistemological point of view), management methodology and social practice. Management sciences are parts of historical discourse and because of that epistemological and methodological levels have an impact on social practice. The main concern of this paper is the role of the management scientist, consultant and teacher. The analysis suggests that academic teacher and researcher are social roles with a character that can be called universal. Practitioner is associated rather with pragmatic aspect of management science. Practitioners are often regarded as managers, but their roles in the organisation might as well be non-managerial.
The article aims at analyzing a particular occupational privilege of employees, commonly referred to as a benefits package. This social privilege is considered a real social and legal phenomenon by a large number of academics. This is because no legal regulations on the privatization and commercialization of Polish companies actually imposed it. The origin of this specific privilege lies in the pragmatic attitude of employees to the process of privatization of companies and selling their stocks to strategic investors. This type of agreements was supposed to protect staff from radical restructuring which the investor could implement upon buying the company. Owing to this privilege, employees were able to establish their own space of social security in the factory. The article presents examples of such documents, discusses their content and possible sanctions for the new owner of the factory (the signatory of the document) if the provisions of the document are not complied with.
The article analyses the approach to the study of the sphere of language between theory of law and the philosophy of language. The aim of the paper is to study the range of applicability of philosophical and linguistic conceptions in theory of law. Law theory reflects certain movements and controversies that have been significant in linguistic sciences. The analyses, which, so far, have been conducted in theory of law, concentrated mainly on the use of the results of such achievements made by the representatives of the philosophy of language and linguistics as formal languages theories, transformational-generative theories, structuralism, formalism, pragmalinguistics. In this article, it is claimed that contemporary changes in the humanities justify the expansion of the range of jurisprudence integration to some other approaches, different from formalistic and pragmatic ones.