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Yue Zhang and Marcia A. Petrini

becoming the main pattern among aging people. 3 Li et al. 4 reported that the number of empty-nest elderly families will reach 90% of the total number of families in China. Many studies exploring empty nesters’ cognitive condition in China have shown that this kind of population is more vulnerable to depression, loneliness, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and other mental syndromes. Some of the studies indicated that the rural area is more vulnerable. Some studies have reported that psychological and physical activity contributes to cognitive fitness and may be

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Hui Liu, Xiao Xiao, Chun-Mei Lu, Dong-Lan Ling and Rui-Hong Wei

studies. Among the five studies, two studies reported positive outcomes, while the other three demonstrated that there was no significant difference between groups. The studies used different tools to measure physical activity levels. Two studies used a daily step count, while the other three studies used a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), a questionnaire, and a metabolic equivalent of task (MET), respectively. Chow et al. 14 reported that the total physical activity in the intervention group was 936.1, while that in the control group was 642.7 (P = 0.003). Physical

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Rian Adi Pamungkas, Kanittha Chamroonsawasdi and Paranee Vatanasomboon

ongoing functioning as well as should adapt to shifting task demands. Family behaviors are important for patients with T2DM which require consistent and active self-management. This often involves changes to daily routines, including changes in eating patterns, physical activity, and regular self-testing for blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, etc. 26 Family system theory emphasizes positive family functioning influencing individual functioning by facilitating interconnectedness for managing diabetes. 27 One study reported that families who are able to adapt

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Rui Chang and Hui Yang

staff.” 3 The emergency department (ED) is one of the highest risk areas for patients’ violence. 4 Many studies show that ED nurses experience significantly more verbal violence than physical, 74.0% of nurses have experienced physical violence every year and 88.0% have been exposed to verbal abuse. 5 American Emergency Nursing Association surveyed 6504 nurses in 2011 and found that 54.4% of nurses experienced verbal violence, of which pure language violence accounted for 42.9%, language and physical violence 11.2%, and physical violence only 0.8%. 6 The incidence

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Yan-Ping Zhu, Li-Xia Xia and Guo-Hong Li

through representing nursing managers. There was no sample size calculation in this survey. 2.2 Data collection In this research, EM was defined as any activity beyond range of motion performed by a care provider (nursing or physical therapist) for ICU patients, including active and passive, in-bed and out-bed exercises (positioning, bed mobility, sitting on side of bed, transfer to chair, walking, etc.). 9 , 15 , 16 Our survey was developed through an iterative process involving the framework in the study by Cabana et al., 21 literature review, and critical

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Hui Xie, Pei-Wen Chen, Long Zhao, Xuan Sun and Xian-Jie Jia

exercise, and regular physical examinations and develop a healthy lifestyle for themselves and the older adults for whom they care. Acknowledgment We thank all the participants who volunteered to share data and our peers who helped by proofreading the manuscript. Conflict of interest : All contributing authors declare no conflicts of interest. References 1 National Bureau of Statistics of China. The sixth national population census of China database. Available at: http://www.gov.cn/test/2012-04/20/content_2118413.htm . Accessed December 6

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Mei-Yan Zhang, Huai-Mei Bi, Tao Wang and Gui-Lan Zhang

cerebral apoplexy is effective in the first 6 months, which is relevant for social services and the home environment. 12 Elassal et al. 13 ’s research on respiratory disease notes that the illness severity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly associated with their anxiety and depression levels and is not related to age or gender. 13 The onset of lung cancer has increasingly affected young adults and is accompanied by physical discomfort and mental pressure. Fear of disease may lead patients to commit suicide. 14 2.3 Common influencing

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Tantut Susanto, lis Rahmawati and Wantiyah

students to navigate the physical and developmental process of adolescent sexuality, 9 while the school health promotion could be as follows: knowledge, attitude, and skills of students in clean and healthy living behavior in Indonesia. 10 Therefore, school environment should be the empowerment of adolescents to become peer educators (PEs) to promote positive youth development. Furthermore, peers could be a facilitator for adolescents to gain further insights into their knowledge-, attitude-, and skill-related issues in growth and development and risk behavior

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Meng Yue, Zhan-Ying Ma, Meng-Jie Lei, Chu-Yun Cui and Yi Jin

typically characterized by paresis or limb paralysis, weakened reflection, muscle atrophy, and difficulty in weaning. ICUAW begins within hours of MV, and it was found to be present in 11%–65% of the patients within at least 24 hours. 4 , 5 It worsens muscle function, increases acute morbidity and 1-year mortality, and prolongs duration of MV and length of stay (LOS) in ICU and hospital. 06 , 07 , 08 , 09 , 10 , 11 For ICU patients, the term “early mobilization” (EM) refers to the application of physical therapy (for example, passive mobilization, active

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Min Liu, Guo-Hong Li and Yan-Hong Liu

toothbrush and mouthwash after meals to protect gingiva; (3) see a dentist Cognition (1) Emphasis on importance of COPD disease cognition and (2) health education of relevant knowledge of rehabilitation Pain (1) The frequency, nature, place, reason, and degree of pain (pain assessment tools); (2) methods to relieve the pain, including deep breathing, imagine, distract attention; (3) physiotherapy: hot compress, physical therapy, and acupuncture; and (4) the effect and side effect of analgesic drugs Skin (1) Inspect skin irritation and damage and (2