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Zia Akthar

relying upon two State Department letters which it took as evidencing willingness by the executive branch to judicial testing of the validity of the expropriation. Banco Nacional de Cuba v. Sabbatino, 307 F.2d 845 (2d Cir. 1962). The U.S. Supreme Court held that the basis of the doctrine was not external deference but internal deference, and it concerns “a basic choice regarding the competence and function of the Judiciary and the National Executive in ordering our relationships with other members of the international community rather than laying down or reaffirming an

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John Vlahoplus

Rogers v . Bellei is an instructive example of the Court’s precedents. Aldo Mario Bellei was born in Italy to an American mother and an alien father. The applicable naturalization statute granted him citizenship at birth subject to a condition subsequent requiring five years of continuous physical presence in the United States between the ages of fourteen and twenty eight. Bellei was a citizen at birth under the statute and traveled internationally on a U.S. passport. See Rogers v. Bellei, 401 U.S. 815, 817, 819 (1971). However, he failed to meet the five year

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James Allan

? Persuade your fellow citizens to adopt it. You want a right to abortion? Persuade your fellow citizens to enact it. That’s flexibility.” Scalia, supra note 13. “Bear in mind that brains and learning, like muscle and physical skill, are articles of commerce. They are bought and sold. You can hire them by the year or by the hour. The only thing in the world not for sale is character.” Justice Antonin Scalia, Commencement Address, Address at Commencement Exercises, College of William and Mary (May 12, 1996). “What is a moderate interpretation of the text? Halfway

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Haydn Davies

vires exercise of power. It could be argued of course, that “environmental impact considerations” are legitimate construction considerations when assessing physical construction or site defects. After all, the physical construction of a site itself has an impact on the environment and a full environmental impact assessment should take account of construction as well as subsequent operation of a landfill site. Furthermore, if an environmental impact assessment does not adequately analyse the suitability of the site itself (in terms of geological suitability, treatment

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Stephen R. Tully

accept ‘TRIPS-plus’ standards. U.N. Secretary-General, The Right of Everyone to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Standard of Physical and Mental Health , Report of the Special Rapporteur, U.N. Doc A/61/338, 63 (Sept. 13, 2006). The United States confronts mass copying of its intellectual property on a global scale. Its enforcement agenda springs from high intellectual property infringement in many States, particularly digital copyright “piracy.” Forging links between international trade and intellectual property gives it additional leverage. Although its

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Troy L. Harris

. After briefly explaining what visitations entailed, this section examines several visitation charges in detail. Bishops were expected to visit their dioceses in the first year after their enthronement (the “primary visitation”) and every third year thereafter (the “triennial visitation”), archdeacons conducting visitations in the years in which there were no episcopal visitations. See Canon 60 , in Synodalia 281 (Edward Cardwell ed., Oxford, Oxford Univ. Press 1842). A “visitation” connoted something more specific than mere physical presence, however: “But a

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Tuvya T. Amsel


The polygraph is an instrument that detects, monitors, and records physiological responses that are allegedly of psychological origin and attributed to deception. Hence the human mind and its complex psychology are the core of the detected physical responses. However, the polygraph industry has almost entirely overlooked psychological issues in its training and publishing. The industry focuses its attention and interest on various technical aspects of the test such as e.g. scoring, rather than concentrating on what is most important, i.e. the examinee’s psychology, as it is responsible for almost the entire test result. The paper extensively explains the importance of examinee psychology and its influence on test outcome, points to the shortfalls in training and publication activity of the industry, and discusses the result and impact of the industry’s approach.

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), Scientific Crime Detection: Early Efforts in Chicago, in August Vollmer: Pioneer in Police Professionalism , V2, Regional Oral History Office, Bancroft Library, University of California-Berkeley. James, W. (1894), ‘The Physical Basis of Emotion’, Psychological Review , vol. 1, pp. 516–529. Jung, C. (1907), ‘On Psychophysical Relations of the Associative Experiment’, Journal of Abnormal Psychology , vol. 1, p. 247. Keeler, E. (1984), The Lie Detector Man: The Career and Cases of Leonarde Keeler , Telshare Publishing, Boston. Keeler, L. (1930

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Miroslava Vlčková, Zuzana Frantíková and Jaroslav Vrchota

., Tsirimpa, A. (2012). Women’s Time Use with ICT and Physical Travel in Greek Urban and Rural Areas. SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business , 1(2), 72. Armitage, R. (2000). An evaluation of secured by design housing within West Yorkshire. Home Office Briefing Note , 7, 1–4. Bailey, D. E., Kurland, N. B. (2002). A review of telework research: Findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work. Journal of Organizational Behavior . . Baltina, I., Vitola, A. (2014). Telework v Evropě a v Lotyšsku: moderní

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David Kleist

treaty. Article 6 reflects a minimum standard for protection against the abuse of treaties. A party may, therefore, reserve the right for the text not to apply to an existing tax treaty only if that treaty already contains preamble language that describes the same intent or that applies more broadly ( OECD 2016 ; see para. 85). Article 7 of the MLI presents an antiabuse provision in the form of the so-called principal purpose test (PPT), For an analysis of the PPT clause, see Chand (2018) . which since the 2017 update is also included in Article 29(9) of the OECD