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R. Koňár, M. Mičian and P. Fabian

References 1. Chen, C. H. Ultrasonic and advanced methods for nondestructive testing and material characterization, 1st ed.; World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.: London, 2007. 2. Kundu, T. Ultrasonic methods for material and structure inspection, 1st ed.; ISTE Ltd: London, 2007. 3. Panametrics Ultrasonic Transducers., 2016. www.olympus.com. https://www.olympus-ims.com/data/File/panametrics/panametrics-UT.en.pdf (accessed June 06, 2016). 4. Langenberg, K. J. Ultrasonic nondestructive testing

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Monika Kosowska-Golachowska, Władysław Gajewski and Tomasz Musiał

- ation of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of coal. Fuel 43(1964), 267-280. [8] Dindi H., Bai X., Krantz W.B.: Thermal and electrical property measurements for coal. Fuel 68(1989), 185-192. [9] Singer J.M., Tye, R.P.: Thermal, mechanical and physical properties of selected bituminous coal and cokes. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 8364 (1979). [10] Herrin J.M., Deming D.: Thermal conductivity of U.S. coals. J. Geophys. Res. 101(1996), 25, 381-386. [11] Suleiman B.M., Larfeldt J

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Miroslawa El Fray, Marta Piątek-Hnat, Judit Puskas and Elizabeth Foreman-Orlowski

., Bartkowiak, A., Prowans, P. & Slonecki, J. (2000), Physical and mechanical behaviour of electron-beam irradiated and ethylene oxide sterilized multiblock polyester. J Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. , 11, pp. 757-762, DOI: 10.1023/A:1008936114611. Prowans, P., El Fray, M., Slonecki, J. (2002) Biocompatibility studies of new multiblock poly(esterester)s composed of poly(butylene terephthalate) and dimerized fatty acid. Biomaterials , 23, pp. 2973-2978, DOI: 10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00026-1. Renke-Gluszko, M. & El Fray, M. (2004

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Irena O. Dolganova, Igor M. Dolganov, Elena N. Ivashkina, Emilia D. Ivanchina and Rostislav V. Romanovskiy

Academic/ Plenum Publishers. 9. Main constructive types of organic synthesis equipment. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-29959.html. 10. Anslyn, E.V., Dougherty, D.A. (2006). Modern physical organic chemistry , California: University Science Books. 11. Reutov, O. A., Kurtz, A.L., Butin, K.P. (2009). Organic chemistry . Part 2. Moscow, MSU.

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Małgorzata Śliwka, Alicja Uliasz-Bocheńczyk and Małgorzata Pawul

Abstract

The bottom waste obtained from bio-mass burning shows a huge variability of chemical and physical properties, depending on the kind of bio-mass, the type of a cauldron and burning parameters. The huge variability of the bottom ashes from the incineration plant and co-combustion of bio-mass makes it difficult to find any way to its management. In reality, only the bottom ashes from coal combustion and the small amount from lignite combustion are used, mainly in the building industry and in mining industry. The article presents the initial research, concerning the estimation of the properties of the bottom ashes obtained from bio-mass congestion in the fluidized-bed boiler to use them safely for the environment. To determine the influence of the tested waste on plants, a number of pot experiments have been conducted. The plants which have been used are recommended for phytotoxicity estimation, and are also used for biological reclamation.

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Katarzyna Pawluk, Joanna Fronczyk and Kazimierz Garbulewski

Abstract

In this paper, the ability of nZVI to remove heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) from multicomponent aqueous solutions was investigated through batch experiments. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order kinetic model based on solid capacity. The data for copper and lead fitted well into the second-order kinetic model, thus suggesting that the adsorption had a physical character. The values of the removal ratio and the second-order rate constant indicated that the order of adsorption priority of nZVI was as follows: Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni. The adsorption isotherm data were described by the most conventional models (Henry, Freundlich, and Langmuir). Equilibrium tests showed that copper and zinc were removed from the solution by adsorption processes, i.e., complexation and competitive adsorption. The test results suggested that the removal processes using nZVI are more kinetic than equilibrium. The study demonstrated that nZVI is favorable reactive material; however, comprehensive investigation should be performed for further in situ applications in PRB technology.

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Przemysław Malinowski, Mieczysław Borowik, Wiesław Wantuch, Leszek Urbańczyk, Michał Dawidowicz and Andrzej Biskupski

Abstract

The results of the study regarding utilization of the waste gypsum formed as a by-product during the production of the magnesium sulphate from dolomite have been presented. The use of this waste have been proposed for the production of granulated multi-component fertilizers containing 25% N; 8% S; 14% CaO and 3.5% MgO. In the process of fertilizer production, the urea which will be bounded with the calcium and magnesium sulphate from the waste in the form of adducts of CaSO4 . 4CO(NH2)2 and MgSO4 . CO(NH2)2 . 3H2O will be the source of nitrogen in the fertilizer. It has been stated on the basis of the laboratory tests that the fertilizer with the assumed composition can be obtained by means of granulation of the raw material pulp, along with the dried and ground product return. The possibility of the production of the fertilizer with good physical properties according to the assumed concept has been confirmed in the pilot scale

Open access

M. Kohl and A. Kalendová

Vodivé polymery včetně významného zástupce polyanilinu (PANI) patří v současné době k vysoce zkoumaným látkám v řadě oborů. Díky snadné přípravě, netoxicitě a vysoké stabilitě se zkoumá i jeho využití ve formulaci organických povlaků. Cílem této práce je vyhodnocení vlivu polyanilinových solí na korozní vlastnosti ochranných organických povlaků pomocí zrychlených korozních zkoušek a techniky lineární polarizace (LP). Polyanilinové sole byly připraveny oxidační polymerací v kyselém prostředí, kdy jako dopující kyselina byla použita kyselina fosforečná (H3PO4), kyselina sírová (H2SO4) a kyselina chlorovodíková (HCl). Celkem tedy byly připraveny tři typy polyanilinových solí: PANI-H3PO4, PANI-H2SO4 a PANI-HCl, které byly charakterizovány na základě fyzikálně chemických metod a dále byly použity pro formulaci organických povlaků, při hodnotách objemové koncentrace pigmentu (OKP) = 0,1; 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 5; 10; 15; 20 % a kritické objemové koncentrace pigmentu (KOKP). Výsledky zrychlené korozní zkoušky i metody lineární polarizace ukazují, že typ i objemová koncentrace polyanilinových solí má významný vliv na výsledné korozní vlastnosti organického povlaku. Z výsledků je zřejmé, že především nízké hodnoty OKP jednotlivých polyanilinových solí mají pozitivní dopad na výsledné korozní vlastnosti v porovnání s nepigmentovaným organickým povlakem.

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Bożena Seredyńska-Sobecka and Maria Tomaszewska

References Le Cloirec P., Brasquet C., Subrenat E.: Adsorption onto fibrous activated carbon: applications to water treatment, Energy and Fuels, 1997, 11, 331 - 336. Hermanowicz W., Dojlido J., Dożańska W., Koziorowski B., Zerbe J.: (Arkady) Physical and chemical examination of water and wastewater, Warszawa 1999 (in Polish). Pąprowicz J. T.: Ocena pylistych węgli aktywnych do usuwania fenoli z oczyszczanej wody. Węgiel aktywny w ochronie środowiska i przemyśle , 2004, 130 - 141

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Dorota Kijowska and Izabella Legocka

,939,517. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Klimiec, J., Fabisz, E., Researches on synthesis of propylene carbonate. Chem. Ind. 79 (10) 339-340 2000. Clements, J.H. Reactive Applications of Cyclic Alkylene Carbonates. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (2003). 42 (4), pp 663-674, DOI: 10.1021/ie020678i. Kowalski, P. (2004). Laboratory of Organic Chemistry ; WNT: Warsaw, (in Polish). Kocot-Bończak, D. (1977). Laboratory Experiments in Physical Chemistry PZWL: Warsaw, (in