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and thus might negatively affect the well-being of the losing side. High-profile suicides in players and managers have recently raised the awareness of the necessity to look at mental health issues in those involved in the professional game (Pringle 2012).
Negative effects of football appear more pronounced when physical health problems from football-related injuries affect the well-being and performance of players, a notable example being the current research into heading the ball and the development of dementia ( Faden and Loane 2015 ). Thus, the physical and
Ewa Dziurzyńska, Beata Pawłowska and Emilia Potembska
„Vesalius”. Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii: 2000.
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15. López-Fernández O., Honrubia
S.M. Yasir Arafat, M A Al Mamun and Md. Saleh Uddin
present with low mood, reduced pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, sleep problems, increase or decrease in appetite and weight, lack of energy, increased fatigability, attention and concentration problem, psychomotor agitation or retardation, undue feeling of guilts, suicidal thoughts, which may lead to suicides ( Kessler & Bromet 2013 ; WHO 2017; American Psychiatric Association 2013 ). Improving the knowledge of the population on depression might help detect depression early.
Health and Depression Literacy
Health literacy (HL) was introduced first in
Faruk Abdullahi Mohammed, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Miracle Ayomikun Adesina, Nwafor Jacob Njideka and Hamza Abubakar Sadiq
Regulation (TobReg) 2015 , WHO 2015, British Heart Foundation, 2019 ). A suggested reason why shisha smoking rate is overtaking that of the cigarette may be because of its stimulatory effect coupled with its higher level of social acceptance when compared to cigarette use ( Maziak et al 2005 , Martinasek et al 2011 , Afifi et al 2013 , Caroll et al, 2014).
There are many reasons why people indulge in shisha smoking habit. Studies had shown that people engage in this habit for pleasure and relaxation and also as a result of peer influence, life problems, distress and
Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno
( Kuhnpast, Gramann, & Pollatos, 2012 ), but no problems recognising other emotions.
However, an association between impaired FER and executive control has been found in several other serious mental disorders, including alcohol dependence ( Trick et al., 2014 ), schizophrenia ( Bortolon, Capdevielle, & Raffard, 2015 ), and bipolar disorders ( David et al., 2014 ). Prefrontal dysfunction may lead to impairments in executive control and FER ( Adolphs, 2002 ). Emotion face perception is a complex process that cannot be related to a single neural event taking place in a
30.[He is][I am]afraid that disciplining our child for misbehavior will cause the child to not like his/her parents
31.[He takes] [I take] our child’s desires into account before asking the child to do something
32.[He explodes][I explode]in anger towards our child
33.[He is][I am] aware ofproblems or concerns about our child in school
34.[He threatens][I threaten]our child with punishment more often than actually giving it
35.[He expresses][I express]affection by hugging, kissing, and holding our child
36.[He ignores][I ignore
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