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Why is it beneficial for landscape architects in Poland to learn about public participation while designing a public park? Reflections on the theory, education and practice of participative planning

, G. & Davies, C. (2009) Benefits and well-being perceived by people visiting green spaces in periods of heat stress Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8(2), 97–108. 10.1016/j.ufug.2009.02.003 Lafortezza R. & Carrus G. & Sanesi G. & Davies C. 2009 Benefits and well-being perceived by people visiting green spaces in periods of heat stress Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 8 2 97 – 108 Lovett, A. & Appleton, K. & Warren-Kretzschmar, B. & Von Haaren, Ch. (2015) Using 3D visualization methods in landscape planning: An evaluation of

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Discount stores in a large city – the “biedronkisation” of the urban space – the case of Warsa

almost 25% of all its European shops ( Table 2 ) located on the territory of Poland. At the same time, it needs to be stressed that discount stores share of the market in Poland amounts to approx. 24%, whereas in France, for example, it amounts to 14%, and in Belgium – 19%. This market segment is most highly developed in Germany (44%) ( Momot 2016 : 15). Table 2 Number of outlets of discount chains in Poland and in Europe in 2014 Poland Europe Share of the number of outlets in Poland in overall number of outlets in Europe Biedronka 2

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The foodservice business in big Polish cities

.23 From the sale of alcoholic beverages, tobacco 4 296.5 4 862.3 4 199.6 4 157.2 -3.25 -1.01 From other activity 673.5 584.8 617.6 445.5 -33.86 -27.87 Source: Own calculations based on CSO (GUS) data The revenue of foodservice enterprises is generated mainly by producing their own food, followed by alcohol and tobacco sales. It is important to stress that the revenue generated by their own production of food has been rapidly increasing. In 2015, own production generated 80.1% of total foodservice activity

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In the shadow of the urban regeneration megaproject: Urban transitions in downtown Łódź, Poland

. Based on the Estonian example, J. Tintěra et al. (2014) , show a common perception that brownfield redevelopment, including post-industrial urban areas in post-socialist cities, is a private sector issue, while the results of our research illustrate strong public commitment. We need to stress that the actions undertaken by all of these city actors in most cases complemented efforts initiated by the Municipality. From this perspective, the city authorities should be praised for taking social initiatives into consideration. This was also a conclusion from T. Fenster

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