continuous increase in irritability during the month
anxiety and irritability were increased during Ramadan
the effect is stronger in smokers
self-selection of volunteers
Koushali, Hajiamini, Ebadi, Bayat, Khamseh 2013
Effect of Ramadan on emotional reactions of nurses
pre-post follow up
Depression, Anxiety and Strees Scales (DASS)
reduction of DASS scores in nurses
depression and stress levels were significantly reduced after in comparison with before the holy month
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61 Keefe RS, Arnold MC, Bayen UJ, Harvey PD: Source monitoring deficits in patients with schizophrenia; a multinomial modelling analysis. Psychol Med 1999;29:903-914.
62 Fletcher PC, Frith CD: Perceiving is believing: A bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009;10:48-58.
63 Feinberg I: Efference copy and corollary discharge: Implications for thinking and its disorders. Schizophrenia bulletin
negative life-stress and daily hassle were predictors of injuries amongst professional soccer players (Ivarsson and Johnson. 2010, Ivarson et al. 2013 ). It was not just the presence of anxiety but the ineffective coping mechanisms to deal with everyday anxiety that were found by predictors of injuries in young players in Johnson and Ivarsson’s study (2011), whilst athletes who perceived their anxiety to be debilitative showed higher levels of burnout ( Wiggins et al. 2005 ). Laux et al. (2015) suggested early signs of this process could be found by monitoring stress