, and specifies mutual obligations and interdependencies as well as unwritten rules of conduct within the mutually approved axiological consensus. The standards supporting the contracting processes stress the importance of cooperation that respects solidarity and reciprocity, and include, among others: striving for integration, reciprocity of services, shared creation of standards and development planning, as well as programming ( Macneil 1974 ; Stankiewicz 2012 ; Noworól 2017 )
Soft spaces as spatial planning entities
Informal spatial planning is primarily
coordination to deliver a broad set of public services explains the tendency to combine amalgamation reforms with high functional differentiation in several European countries, particularly in the North ( Denters et al. 2014 ). The predictability of bureaucratic organization can help improve citizen satisfaction with service delivery, not only in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, but also in less tangible values such as equity and perceived fairness.
Just as with economic efficiency, the expected outcomes of amalgamations for managerial effectiveness seem to vary
Joanna Maria Badach, Anna Stasiak and Andrzej Baranowski
similar view is shared by the authors of the concept of New Localism, which is a novel tool increasingly being used in solving contemporary problems based on the principles of sustainable development ( Katz & Nowak 2017 ). Moreover, the new model of transforming the built environment should be based on the social dimension and the active participation of residents ( Badach & Dymnicka 2017 ; Coaffee & Healey 2003 ; García 2006 ). In this context we can perceive the city space as a “Civic Space”, which is a “new perspective on the ways of managing space” both as a
literature on the topic. This is why, of the selected concepts of shaping of macro-regions, we stress those in which the technique of their delineation is indicated.
The number of authors dealing with differentiation of the world, including the construction of macro-regions, is quite limited. There is mostly a construction of macro-regions of the world from various viewpoints: political and economic ( Häufler 1985 ), socioeconomic ( Morris 1972 ), sociocultural ( De Blij & Muller 1997 ; Huntington 1996 ; Fellmann et al. 2008 ), or according to technological and
-time studies at the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw (WGSR UW), as well as to the SD and ESD’s agenda for the postgraduate program for future geography teachers. The results might be useful for the teachers themselves in adjusting their teaching of ESD in schools during geography lessons after having conducted a similar survey among students about their knowledge of SD, their awareness about its significance in the modern world, and their attitudes within this context.
The need to implement ESD has been stressed in numerous
/Timperio/Crawford 2013 ).
3.5 Das Verkehrssystem
Eine große Anzahl von Faktoren des Verkehrssystems, mit im Einzelfall sehr kleinteilig-detaillierten Umständen, können Eltern davon abhalten, ihren Kindern die selbstständige Mobilität zu erlauben. Hierzu zählen hohe Kfz-Verkehrsdichte, hohe Geschwindigkeitsniveaus, breite, zu überquerende Straßen, Unfallschwerpunkte auf der Strecke und – genereller – vom Kfz-Verkehr verursachter Stress (Stone/Larsen/Faulkner et al. 2014; Ahern/Arnott/Chatterton et al. 2017 ; Zhang/Yao/Liu 2017; Scheiner/Huber/Lohmüller 2019). Umgekehrt wird das
Oluwole Daramola, Oluwaseun Olowoporoku, Ademola Akanmu and Adewale Adejumo
Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 7 (1): 29-33.
Daramola O.P. 2015. Environmental Sanitation Practices in Residential Areas of Ibadan Metropolis. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of Doctor of Philosophy Degree.
Daramola O.P., Odunsi O.M. 2016. Determinants of Students Perceived Manmade Environmental Hazards and Risks in Tertiary Educational Institutions. Global Journal of Environmental Science and
of Leitbilder , as well as of the difficulties of finding an equivalent English term for the concept. At the end, Horst Zimmermann expresses his scepticism regarding the usefulness of the term ‘ Leitbild ’.
In the second study, Gabi Troeger-Weiß, Hans-Jörg Domhardt and Christoph Scheck present an empirical analysis of engines of growth beyond metropolitan areas. In the context of increasing spatial and social polarization in many European countries, it is a highly relevant chapter. The authors stress that in Germany there are numerous rural regions, and even
The current public, political and academic interest in concepts of vulnerability and resilience can at least partly be seen in the light of the financial and economic crisis of the late 2000s and continuing forms of perceived social, political, economic and financial crises in a number of European countries. The author thanks three anonymous reviewers for useful comments that helped improve an earlier version of this paper. This has brought a new dimension to these concepts which have their roots in socio-ecological research. The contribution
Perceiving and dealing with endangerments form part of the history of human society. People have always tried to protect themselves from the dangers they perceive. In relation to dealing with dangers, however, it is possible to identify spatial, social and temporal differences. Thus, for instance, neighbouring coastal regions can differ from one another in the way in which they deal with the threat of storm flooding at a particular time, even though they are exposed to very similar physical environments. In addition, in the same coastal region