planning theory, organisation theory, sociological approaches and transition studies. It proposes using role-based playing to think 'out of the box' and become a creative force for manifold diverse actors working on spatial developments. This approach will be termed role-reflexive planning . Section 2 outlines basic thoughts for perceiving planning as a system of roles in transition. It connects existing role-based studies to the field of transition studies and multiple or fluid roles of planners. Section 3 adds thoughts from systems theory and organisation theory
cannot help but endorse. Yet, rather than understanding Forester's provoking question as a mere aporia, in this article I take on his call by stressing the role of research and its function as a mediacy within the never-ending theory-practice interaction. However, my aim is not necessarily to state the type of research that would ultimately enable planners to be(come) better (the assessment of 'better' is, in my view, far too problematic and requires a discussion of its own Affirming 'better', for starters, implies that planners are already 'good' at what they do; and
auditors often contribute their own experiences and considerations. As a consequence, an important amount of my empirical data originates from my personal circles and from informal sources. I have strived to balance this bias by the formal and distanced methods described above. For a detailed description of my approach, see Frank (2017) .
2 What is a Suburb?
Interpreting the spread of inner-city family enclaves as a process of inner-city suburbanization might come as a provocation to many. Planners, in particular, often tend to perceive suburban estates as
( Burdack/Hesse 2007 ; Young/Keil 2010 ; Phelps/Wood 2011 ; Mace 2013 ; Charmes/Keil 2015 ). This work has illustrated that the suburban paradigm is not only out-dated, but is an altogether ill-suited metaphorical concept for urban growth. Here, the work of Phelps, Wood and Valler (2010) should be stressed as well. They are clear that ‘post-suburban’ is not, in itself, another essentialist category; rather it is a lens that offers new dimensions to understand and compare new urban spaces.
Although much of this literature has focused on North American and British
normality, but rather as a dynamic, evolutionary capacity to adapt in response to stresses and strains. Furthermore, the dynamics of complex systems are non-linear, which generates path dependency or local rules of interaction that mean history shapes how the system evolves and develops into the future ( Holland 1992 ). This definition is preferred by scholars working within evolutionary economic geography (EEG) since it has clear resonance with evolutionary economic geography thinking on the path-dependent, evolutionary and nonequilibrium dynamics of regional economic
special tax was chosen as the payment vehicle. The results show that respondents’ willingness to pay decreases as the amount of the potential tax increases. Del Saz Salazar/Menendez (2007 : 304) argue that a fair local tax policy should consider that households living closer to the park gain greater benefits than those living farther away. Further, they stress that the estimation of nonmarket benefits is a key element of urban planning and decision making, as contingent valuation is a flexible tool that can be very helpful for public authorities and private citizen
Analysing Key Socio-Technical Systems for the Vulnerability and Resilience of Cities
Marc Wolfram and Rico Vogel
structurally differ from the original state. Following Wildavsky's (1988) distinction between management approaches oriented at either anticipation or resilience, as well as Holling's understanding of "engineering resilience" versus "ecological resilience" (1996), two response strategies are reflected in current resilience thinking (Walker/Carpenter/Anderies et al. 2002; Foster 2006 ; Resilience Alliance 2007):
Anticipation strategies : focused on known and predictable problems, aimed at increasing capacity to withstand stress and prepare for failure in order to
and present social values most effectively and appropriately. One of the dilemmas hereby is that an important characteristic of information on social values is that it is not ‘value-neutral’. Experience has shown that maps showing socio-cultural and socio-economic differences usually trigger political and ideological reactions, and reversely that maps tend to be used to stress or omit a ‘hot’ political issue ( de Vries 2008 ; Moody 2010 ).
Fortunately, both legal-institutional and technical instruments are available to support land-use decisions. Various EU