-22). New York and London: Routledge. Nietzsche, F. (1912). Poza dobrem i złem /Beyond good and evil/. Warszawa - Kraków: Nakład Jakóba Mortkowicza. Ossowska, M. (1966). Podstawy nauki o moralności /Foundations of the science of morality/. Warsaw: PWN. Palm, J. (2004). Sport for All! - Fair Play for All? Academic Supplement of Fair Play! The Official Publication of the European Fair Play Movement, 1, 1-2. Przyłuska-Fiszer, A., Misiuna, B. (1993). Etyczne aspekty sportu /Ethical aspects of sport/ (pp. 7
Soline Anthore Baptiste and Nicolas P. Baptiste
During the twentieth century, clothing permits a real freedom of bodily movement. However, when examining past athletic activity, we must take into account the period approach to the body: liberty of movement is at the same time controlled by morality, gestures and clothing. The French term “tenue” initially referred to behaviour, but since the end of the eighteenth century concerns the manner of dressing, and later by extension, the “dignity of conduct”. In the past times concerned with “sporting” activities such as the HEMA (Historical European Martial Arts), physical appearance is affected by rules of etiquette imposed by morality and civility. From the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century, each period offers a different overview of the dress standards in relation to the different approaches to corporal identity, and the constriction first necessary for military activities becomes indivisible from the moral and physical construction. As a practitioner of the 21st century, the question raises about our relationship, not only with our bodies but also with past cultures. As demonstrated by some concrete examples, if it is desired to fully approach the ancient practices, it is therefore necessary to also adopt the garment, in the same way as the accessories.
The conception of the paper is connected with bringing forward the reflection of Leon Petrażycki on intuitive law. For this purpose I analyze the genesis and dynamics of this phenomenon on the cultural-historical level, as well as with reference to issues belonging to the scope of positive law. In addition, I broaden the research field with the range of problems touching on intuitionism, morality, and also independent ethics of Janusz Kotarbinski. The starting point of the methodological optics I assume is constituted by the multi-aspectual transformations surrounding us in the sphere of axiology. Hence, if the pedagogical aspects are taken into account, it seems to me justified to undertake some actions in order to search for the logically consistent, sensible and universal solutions, which can become an ethical guide-post for the contemporary human being.
Spirit and body of the man living in the world of modern technology are discussed in the paper. The entire life of modern man is under the pressure of rapid and far‐reaching changes in economy, organisation, education, self‐image. The relations between the spirit and the body on the one side and illness and health, money, media, narcissism, morality and national identity on the other side are studied in the article. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between the world of modern science and technology and the quality of life focusing on the mind and body. The fact emphazised in the conclusion is that the nature of Western ‐ European civilization has been changing with predominant turning to the SELF, to the absolute interest of an invidual in terms of materialism. The result of this civilizational turn is jeopardizing the spirit and the body of modern man.
Michaela Petrufová Joppová
‒120. GLUCHMAN, V. (2001): Teória správneho v etike sociálnych dôsledkov [Theory of right in ethics of social consequences]. In: Filosofický časopis, 49(4), pp. 633‒654. GLUCHMAN, V. (2003): Human being and morality in ethics of social consequences. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press. GLUCHMAN, V. (2008): Etika a reflexie morálky [Ethics and reflections of morality]. Prešov: FF PU. GLUCHMAN, V. (2017): G. E. Moore and theory of moral/right action in ethics of social consequences. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe), 7
It would appear that Czesław Miłosz’s Treatise on Morality - one of whose aims was to “stave off despair” - was largely inspired by the writings of Joseph Conrad. That Miłosz had no wish to draw his readers’ attention to this is perfectly understandable, given Conrad’s particularly low standing in the eyes of communist State censors. This long poem, which extols human freedom and pours scorn on socialist realism (together with its ideological premises), is one of Miłosz’s best known works in his native Poland, where it was published in 1948. The Treatise on Morality may well have been inspired by three of Conrad’s essays that were banned in communist Poland: ‘Autocracy and War’ (1905), ‘A Note on the Polish Problem’ (1916) and ‘The Crime of Partition’ (1919). After the Second World War, translations of these three essays were not available to the general Polish reader until … 1996! Conrad’s writings helped Miłosz to diagnose Poland’s political predicament from a historical perspective and to look for a way out of it without losing all hope. An analysis of the Treatise on Morality shows that only by reconstructing the Conradian atmosphere and context - alluded to in the text - can we fully grasp all the levels of the poet’s irony, which culminates in a final “punchline”. Apart from allusions to The Heart of Darkness and the brutal colonization of the Congo, the fate of post-war Poland is also seen through the optic of those of Conrad’s novels that deal with the subject of depraved revolutionaries: Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907) and Under Western Eyes (1911). Conrad’s ideas for ways to fight against bad fortune and despair are suggested not only by his stories Youth (1902) and Typhoon (1903) - and by his novels The Nigger of the “Narcissus” and Lord Jim - but also and above all by his volume of memoirs entitled A Personal Record (1912), in which he relates his yearning for freedom as the young, tragic victim of a foreign empire. In an article entitled ‘Joseph Conrad in Polish Eyes’ and published in 1957 - on the hundredth anniversary of Conrad’s birth - Miłosz writes that, through his writings, Conrad fulfilled the hopes of his father (who gave him the name “Konrad”) and that although “the son did not want to assume a burden that had crushed his father, he had nevertheless become the defender of freedom against the blights of autocracy”
To handle physical, mental or existential pain, man resorts to medicine, psychology, religion, philosophy ... This issue has also been discussed by writers and painters of all epochs. Artists have the advantage though - using the language of art, they can reach the truth about human life which cannot be accessed in a different way.
The departure point for the deliberations about suffering and the sense of debating about it by means of words and pictures is a poem by W. H. Auden “Musée des Beaux-Arts”, from which the title quotation is derived. Auden refers to P. Bruegel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, which applies to Ovid. In this paper, besides the aforementioned works (Auden, Bruegel; Metamorphoses), other paintings by Bruegel as well as the prose by Z. Herbert The Passion of our Lord Painted by an Anonymous Hand from the Circle of Rhenish Masters are used, allowing one to reflect on suffering, on the language of art, on making sense of the work in the reception process, and also on the morality of art and the morality of art understanding.
Since the mid-19th century until the 1930s, the Czech physical education and the scout movements formed a platform for the propagation of a specific somatology and health science discourse connected with the issues of morality, national awareness and political views. They strived to create an integral Czech personality subject to the imperative of the bourgeois values and norms. The stress was on the set of rules, diligence, commitment to the benefit of the nation, moderation, temperance, and obedience, while laziness and conspicuous revelry were, in this context, condemned. Disobedience, immorality and improper use of powers were perceived as a real threat to the national community and later to the so-called First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938). Hence, activities of both the physical education organisations and the Scout Movement, became a form of national defence against harmful influences. As a result of their effort to impact the society as a whole, these activities became a mobilization tool which promoted both physical and moral norms: the cultivation of the body became a moral duty for all members of the nation. The disapproval, based on political and generational reasons, towards the bourgeois morality hegemony and later, of the state paternalism (for instance by the non-organised scout-tramps), resulted in attempts to condemn all those who refused the social dictate and the state’s control.
Morality is often referred to as the code of conduct of society. This code determines what is considered correct behaviour and enforces values society deems beneficial. Values themselves are protected by laws and social or moral norms. Authors combine all the mentioned concepts and convey them through the actions taken or not taken by characters. Their writings provide the reader with characters’ motivations, reasoning and try to line them up with a final judgment – to see whether individual morals and values line up with the ones upheld by the rest of society. When dealing with morality in narratives of pain and trauma, the objective is then not only to analyse the protagonists’ psyche but also consider societal pressures. The focus of our analysis lies in Pavel Vilikovský’s novel The Autobiography of Evil, in which the author depicts morally sound characters becoming morally ambiguous while living in an oppressively authoritarian political system. Our aim is to explore the pain and trauma of Jozef K. whose moral core is affected by blackmail and threats. His actions are misguided and they perpetuate the cycle of violence instead of stopping it.
The paper explores the eternal theme of morality and its effects on human thoughts and actions as depicted in M. L. Stedman’s debut novel The Light between Oceans (2012). The aim is to study how her characters, facing a demanding post-war environment, deal with morally challenging events in their lives and how they are able to fight the socially accepted concepts of what is right and what is wrong as well as the consequences of the serious decisions they make. Tom Sherbourne, a WWI veteran, settles down to his new job as lighthouse keeper and marriage with Isabel, but instead of finding peace, he faces several moral dilemmas which create a cold distance between him and his wife, as well as between his pre-war and actual self. In this sense, the paper tries to describe what Stedman has to say - through Tom’s character - about the nature of human morality and decision-making and how tragic their consequences might be.