Martin Gierus, Marc Loesche, Heba Salama, Antje Herrmann and Friedhelm Taube
is the case under grazing, up to now plant tissue has been regarded as passive victim of the degradation process of the rumen microbes. The contribution of plant-mediated proteolytic enzymes contained in ingested fresh forage and its contribution to protein degradation is ignored in current models for ruminant nutrition ( Theodorou et al., 1996 ; Kingston-Smith et al., 2003 ). Assuming that half of ingested plant biomass at grazing consists of intact cells ( Kingston-Smith and Theodorou, 2000 ), which stay viable and are metabolically active during the first hours
This paper examines how Finnish farm women interpret their own position as women on family farms. Following the poststructuralist approach in rural gender studies, the analysis focuses on the meanings which women produce regarding agrarian femininity. For this purpose, interview material on their everyday life stories are compared with the discourses on rural femininities in the Koti magazine, which is published by the most important organization representing farm women in Finland. It is concluded that the positions in which farm women present themselves are in accordance with the discourses on rural femininity produced and mediated by this magazine. Farm women present themselves, and they are expected to be, economically active agents in the post-productivist countryside
Monika Bumbalová, Ivan Takáč, Jela Tvrdoňová and Martin Valach
In the EU new programming period 2014-2020 the Leader approach become part of community-led local development (CLLD). Under Slovak conditions, partnerships, which intend to get the legal status of local action group (LAG), are currently in the process of preparing and formulating their CLLD Strategies. Leader approach is characterised by 7 principles, which should be horizontally presented throughout the implementation process. The multilevel governance presented in the implementation of Leader approach includes the management and implementation of rural development programme, through which the Leader is implemented, as well as, formation of LAGs, as the mediators of the approach at local level. Both levels may have supporting or constraining effects on the application of Leader principles in the Leader delivery. The paper focuses on analysing the differences between theory and practice in the conditions of the Slovak Republic when answering the evaluation question: Are stakeholders in Slovakia ready for community led local development? To answer the question, six LAGs were assessed using the focus group as the assessment tool. Representatives of the national authorities were interviewed in order to complete the picture of the evaluated topic. The study pointed out several shortcomings in basic preconditions allowing smooth application of the CLLD.
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