eye. Representatives of those promoting an ecologically sound environment put pressure on public authorities on behalf of citizens interested in green issues. They press politicians to take particular measures to achieve immediate success in the management of environmental pollution, most notably of smog and its sources. Nevertheless, one may often get the impression that the measure of success is not the restriction of emissions but the use of the climate of fear. The climate serves other interim activities as the springhead for the social advocacy of prime movers
authors and those carrying out such undertakings regarding the consequences of failure to consider and respect climate conditions in the regeneration process. The issues of adapting urban areas to climate change have become important elements of urban policies implemented in many countries. Extreme weather phenomena and their consequences, from serious to catastrophic, force city authorities to adopt a wider perspective in the management of urban areas. That perspective comprises the whole spectrum of urban functional issues, the development of its spatial structure, as
, other), initiators (Rotterdam Municipality, Port of Rotterdam Authority, local society, private entity), and areas of impact (building, housing estate, district, city). Survey sheets were processed in Excel using statistical techniques.
The interviews, conducted in November and December 2014, involved an official in City Hall, two academics at the Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, a flood defence specialist at the Keringhuis – Public Water Management Information Centre and a specialist on sustainable development
is a proper method of furthering development. Now that those times are about 30 years in the past, it is evident that the condition of Polish society has certainly changed significantly in the meantime. Does the concept of citizen participation find better soil for development in these new circumstances? While this is hard to measure, let’s take a look at the condition of participation in contemporary Poland.
The idea has certainly not died, rather the opposite is true as it has become far more popular and is more frequently applied in practice. It has been
Katarzyna Goch, Szymon Ochota, Monika Piotrkowska and Zuzanna Kunert
measuring travel time to them. Distinguishing accurate points was performed on the basis of the Study of the Conditions and Directions of Spatial Management ( Rada m. st. Warszawy 2006 ), the results of expert workshops organised by the Warsaw Branch of the Association of Polish Architects ( Oddział Warszawski Stowarzyszenia Architektów Polskich 2015 ), which consisted of analyses of the city’s spatial layout as well as observing the mode of functioning of particular places in the whole urban structure; and on the basis of the outcomes from interviewing experts in the
Marta Borowska-Stefańska, Szymon Wiśniewski and Klaudia Modrzejewska
Statistical Office of Poland ( Bank Danych Lokalnych GUS [BDL GUS] ).
Parcels in the cities researched are characterised in accordance with their geometric features. The authors calculated, for instance, the average parcel surface, an indicator of parcel shape differentiation, and an indicator of parcel shape density. In order to measure parcel shape in the provincial capitals, they used measurements of the length of their borders and their surface. Two gauges of this shape were developed by J. Dzieciuchowicz ( Dzieciuchowicz & Dmochowska-Dudek 2014 ). The first one
of transport services on offer are usually a response of carriers to the measures undertaken by their competition. Such events ultimately lead to the improvement of the communication services to particular locations by a reduction in prices, improvement of vehicle quality and increase in the number of bus services on particular routes.
The need to adapt to certain solutions and formal requirements is important in addition to the changes dictated by the transport needs of the inhabitants of certain locations. The main problem is access to the bus station in
policies and safety management systems are the most important factors in raising safety levels. Necessary maintenance and its safeguarding cannot be taken over by AVs.
It is not easy to predict how much impact AVs will have on safety and the reduction of accidents. S. Newnam & N. Goode (2015) analysed 27 highway crash reports and found that the truck driver’s fault was not the main problem. The conclusions of the study are also interesting in the light of the emergence of AVs.
In the European Union there is a decade of experience of research on specialised
( van Gent et al. 2009 ). Neither is there some common understanding on the criteria to be applied in delineating such areas. According to W. van Gent et al. (2009 : 55), deprived areas are places where place-based liveability issues (like vandalism, anti-social behaviour, crime etc.) are coupled with, and are assumed to be a source of, sustained economic deprivation. Multiple socio-economic variables and composite scores are used more frequently and are believed to be more appropriate measures of spatial disadvantage than simple income indicators ( Pawson & Herath
the best technical and technological standards available as well as choices consistent with the circular economy. Lastly - the ideas described are only achievable if we incorporate continuous cooperation between urban planners, architects, specialist consultants, as well as energy effective interdisciplinary solutions to achieve energy efficiency measures. One of the thresholds is circular economic feasibility; the other is the health and wellbeing of the users whose needs should always be discussed as a priority over any other solutions. Social and educational