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Francisco Javier Romero Caro

Abstract

Since it was passed, the Clarity Act has been at the core of any secessionist debate in Canada and abroad. Although contested at home, the Clarity Act has earned worldwide prestige as the democratic standard that must be observed when a secessionist debate arises. In the last fifteen years Spain has experienced successive debates about the need to establish a mechanism of popular consultation to address secessionist claims in the Basque Country and Catalonia. Most political actors in favour of such consultations have expressed their will to import the Canadian Clarity Act as a tool to settle disputes on how to conduct a referendum. However, this deification of the Canadian example is, for the most part, based on a misreading of the Secession Reference, only taking into account certain passages while ignoring others. The emphasis tends to be made on the quantitative clear majority test, disregarding other factors. Hence, the aim of this paper is to study the causes of this deification of the Clarity Act in Spain, and its influence on the treatment of secessionist claims that the country is currently experiencing.

Open access

Caterina Marchionni

. Ed. by M. Boumans. Elsevier: 135–52. Basso, Alessandra; Chiara Lisciandra; and Caterina Marchionni. 2017. Hypothetical models in social science. In Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science , ed. by Magnani and Bertolotti. Springer: 413–33. Bokulich, Alisa. 2014. How the tiger bush got its stripes: ‘how possibly’ vs. ‘how actually’ model explanations. The Monist 97(3): 321–38. Bokulich, Alisa. 2009. Explanatory fictions. In Fictions in Science: Philosophical Essays on Modeling and Idealization , ed. by M. Suárez. London: Routledge, 91

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Manal Ghanem and Emad Abu Osba

Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with unity. The main objective of this article is to study the relationships between PP-rings, generalized morphic rings and EM-rings. Although PP-rings are included in the later rings, the converse is not in general true. We put necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure the converse using idealization and polynomial rings

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Karin Schwiter, Katharina Pelzelmayer and Isabelle Thurnherr

Abstract

This article analyses Swiss media coverage of 24 hours care between 2003 and 2013. Based on a discourse analysis we observe that the dominant media discourse speaks of a booming market that criticises agencies, victimises carers and idealises home care. In our discussion we analyse these results with a focus on the so-called blind spots of this media discourse. In particular, we challenge the claim of a boom in 24h care, shed light on the negative aspects of home care, and address the ignored responsibility of the family as employer.

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Jozef Sumec and Mária Minárová

Abstract

Phenomenological models of continuum mechanics applied on the rigid body are more or less idealized. Experimental measuring showed there is a plastic flow, respectively relaxation in real rigid bodies, i.e. stress is the function of strain, strain velocity and the higher time derivatives. The paper deals with the rheological models based on the Hook elastic and Newton viscous masses. The corresponding constitutive equations are described.

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Hiroyuki Okazaki

Probability on Finite and Discrete Set and Uniform Distribution

A pseudorandom number generator plays an important role in practice in computer science. For example: computer simulations, cryptology, and so on. A pseudorandom number generator is an algorithm to generate a sequence of numbers that is indistinguishable from the true random number sequence. In this article, we shall formalize the "Uniform Distribution" that is the idealized set of true random number sequences. The basic idea of our formalization is due to [15].

Open access

Erdal Ekici

References 1. AçiKGÖZ, A.; YÜKSEL, S.; NoíRI, T. - a-I-preirresolute functions and ß-I-preirressolute functions, Bull. Malays. Math. Sci. Soc, 28 (2005), 1-8. 2. BOURBAKI, N. - Elements of Mathematics. General Topology, Part 1, Hermann, Paris, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass.-London-Don Mills, Ont., 1966. 3. DONTCHEV, J. - Idealization of Ganster-Reilly decomposition theorems, arxiv:math.GN/9901017v1 (1999). 4. DONTCHEV, J.; GANSTER, M.; Rose, D. - Ideal resolvability

Open access

Andrew Bowsher

Abstract

This article examines the cultural practice of effecting an independent marketplace for reissued music in the United States, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Austin, Texas with independent record labels and consumers. As the music industry is not a homogenous entity (Williamson and Cloonan, 2007), I argue that the practice of legitimising an independent marketplace requires the formulation of a ‘mainstream’ market to which the independent is opposed, and the erecting of marketplace myths (Arsel and Thompson, 2010) to substantiate the independent marketplace’s claims to differ from the mainstream. Legitimising strategies (Strachan, 2007) protect the investments made by producers and consumers of goods in their marketplace. To overcome the anxiety that commodified culture is inauthentic culture, the independent marketplace for reissued music is idealised as a realm of soft capitalism that enables the commodification of cultural goods without the stigmatisation of profiteering, exploitation and ‘inorganic’ music associated with the mainstream (Negus, 1992).

Open access

Ying Wang

Abstract

This paper sets out to investigate Chinese university students’ ELF awareness, which is conceptualised with regards to language education. The study, based on 24 semi-structured interviews, demonstrates that Chinese university students are still framing their understanding of English with the affiliation to idealised notions of monolingual origin of native English, despite being situated in a changing world where multilingual speakers of English are becoming the majority of English users and ELF is becoming a prominent communicative phenomenon. The participants’ account reveals the role of language education as the interface between language ideology and linguistic reality in China. Based on the study, this paper suggests ways of minimising the gap in ELF awareness. While this paper appreciates Chinese philosophy of education, the focus is on promoting awareness of English in relation to its sociocultural context and considering “imagined communities” in the learning so as to come to terms with sociolinguistic reality.

Open access

Katarzyna Bizon

Abstract

Over the last decades the method of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been successfully employed for reduced order modelling (ROM) in many applications, including distributed parameter models of chemical reactors. Nevertheless, there are still a number of issues that need further investigation. Among them, the policy of the collection of representative ensemble of experimental or simulation data, being a starting and perhaps most crucial point of the POD-based model reduction procedure. This paper summarises the theoretical background of the POD method and briefly discusses the sampling issue. Next, the reduction procedure is applied to an idealised model of circulating fluidised bed combustor (CFBC). Results obtained confirm that a proper choice of the sampling strategy is essential for the modes convergence however, even low number of observations can be sufficient for the determination of the faithful dynamical ROM.