References Adrian M., Klinger A. A biomechanical analysis of the fencing lunge. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Biomechanic, Human Kinetics, 1983; 882-888. Barth B., Beck E. The complete guide to fencing. Oxford: Meyer and Meyer sport (UK) Ltd. 2007. Bayios I. A., Anastasopoulou E. M., Sioudris D. S., Boudolos. Relationship between isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators and ball velocity in team handball. J Sports Med Phys Fitness
Charilaos Tsolakis and George Vagenas
Alessandro Battistini and Niki Corradetti
Since ancient times, the master-at-arms profession has always been considered essential for the education of the nobility and the common citizenship, especially in the Middle Ages. Yet, we know nothing about the real standard of living of these characters. The recent discovery of documents, which report the sums earned by fencing masters to teach combat disciplines, has brought us the possibility to estimate how highly this profession was regarded, and what its actual economic value was in the Italian late Middle Ages. They also give us also a material view into the modes of operation of a sala d’arme in those times.
Using different comparative methods based on the quoted currencies, primary goods and the cost of living, it was possible to analyze prices and duration of various military teachings offered by the fencing Masters in the late Middle Ages and equivalent viable activities of the time. We use three ways to calculate equivalent income levels in euros: from the silver content of the coins (bolognini, equivalent to the soldo); from purchasing power in relation to bread prices; and from equivalent wages. As a result we were able to define more accurately both the accessibility of these services for citizens and the relative value to other professions.
This cursory research study also aims to estimate approximately the current equivalent wages of a fencing master operating in the Italian peninsula in the 15th and early 16th century, confirming that this job was comparable to a modern, highly specialized, profession.
Charilaos Tsolakis, Andreas Douvis, George Tsigganos, Elias Zacharogiannis and Athanasia Smirniotou
MS. Acute effects of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength. J Strength Cond Res, 2009, 23: 304-308 Barnes CJ, Van Steyn SJ, Fisher RA. The effects pf age, sex, and shoulder dominance on range of motion of the shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 2001, 10: 242-246 Barth B, Beck E. The complete guide to fencing. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd. 2007. Behm DG, Bambury A, Cahill F, Power K. Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance
). Nicoletto Giganti, The ‘Lost’ Second Book of Nicoletto Giganti (1608): A Rapier Fencing Treatise, translated by P. Terminiello and J. Pendragon (London: Fox Spirit, 2013). Senese, translated by Piermarco Terminiello, unpublished work. VIII.2. Secondary literature Anglo, Sydney, Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000). Baker, Nicholas Scott, Writing the Wrongs of the past: Vengeance, Humanism, and the Assassination of Alessandro de’ Medici’ The Sixteenth Century Journal , 38/2 (2007). Dollinger, Philippe
armas en treinta y ocho asserciones. Madrid: 1675. Rivera, Tim. A Glossary of Common Iberian Fencing. St. Louis: 2013. http://spanishsword.org/files/common.fencing.glossary.pdf. Senese, Alessandro. Il vero maneggio della spada. Bologna: 1660. Tamariz, Nicolás. Cartilla, y luz en la verdadera destreza. Seville: 1696. Texedo Sicilia de Teruel, Pedro. Escuela de principiantes. Naples: 1678. Valle Ortiz, Manuel. Nueva bibliografía de la antigua esgrima y destreza de las armas. Santiago de
János Majár and Zoltán Várhelyi
In this paper we investigate the basic mathematical and philosophical tool of Gérard Thibault d’Anvers, the Circle. One of our main goals was to describe the Circle with coordinate geometry, and to estimate the rate of accuracy of his work. Furthermore, we also wanted to test the statements made by Thibault in his fencing manual, Academy of the Sword [Thibault, 1630; Greer, 2005]. To do this, we compared his observations and calculations with the results of available modern day and historical anthropometrical data sets. Based on our results, we also want to give some practical information about Thibault system for the fencers who study his art in our time.
Understanding in the Study of Lost Martial Arts. Epistemological Reflections on the Mediality of Historical Records of Technique and the Status of Modern (Re-) Constructions’, Acta Periodica Duellatorum 4/2 (2016), pp. 5-30. Gotti, Roberto, Rizzante, Riccardo, and Jaquet, Daniel, eds, Masquerade. Elegance and extravagance in ancient fencing masks (Botticino: Gairethinx, 2017). Hils, Hans-Peter, ‘Die Handschriften des oberdeutschen Fechtmeisters Hans Talhoffer’, Codices Manuscripti 9/3 (1983), pp. 97-121. Jacobs, Friedrich and Ukert, Ferdinand August
Guilds have a well-established association with the fencing systems of medieval Europe, and the phenomenon of guilds has been the subject of a great deal of new academic research in the last 20 years or so. A thorough summary of the recent scholarship on guilds and their structure and history will help provide context for what may be loosely described as armed guilds. Though armed guilds have not yet been the subject of a proper systematic analysis, it is possible to tentatively identify four types. Combining the summary of ‘civilian’ guilds with the emerging evidence of armed guilds, including the fencing guilds, may help us better understand the social relevance of martial arts in medieval and Early Modern Europe. This may in turn contribute positively to the ongoing efforts to interpret the medieval fightbooks.
Modern Saber Fencing by Zbigniew Borysiuk published by SKA SwordPlay Books, NYC, Staten Island
Modern Saber Fencing by Zbigniew Borysiuk (SKA SwordPlay Books, New York, USA) is a product of the author's many years of experience as a fencing coach and a researcher of talent identification, mental and motor coaching, with particular interests in information processes, perception, sensori-motor reactions, spacial and temporal anticipation as well as selection in sport and fencing training at all stages of an athlete's development. The greatest asset of the book is the wealth of photographs and presentations of technical and tactical actions by elite saber fencers on a DVD. This book should be extremely useful in fencing training and attract the interest of the fencing community, including collegiate fencing clubs, in the United States, Poland and other countries.
Maciej Tomczak, Małgorzata Walczak and Grzegorz Bręczewski
. Psychol Sport Exerc , 2008, 9 (2), 157-176, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.03.002. Brzeziński J., Methodology of psychological research [in Polish]. PWN, Warszawa 1996. Williams J. M., Hoepner B. J., Moody D. L., Ogilvie B. C., Personality traits of champion level female fencers. Res Q , 1970, 41, 446-453. Bandach L., Personality conditions of the combat style in foil fencing [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy , 1997, 3-4, 33-39. Gracz J., Tomczak M., Selected