Álvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, María-Jesús Lirola and Rafael Burgueño
goals are those where the activity is directed at developing personal potential, values and interests. Extrinsic goals, on the other hand, reflect a desire to achieve benchmarks with external value such as gaining social recognition, giving a good image or having financial success ( Kasser and Ryan, 1993 , 1996 ). As such, extrinsic values do not come from oneself but from a type of external pressure accorded to which the behaviour is adopted. Research has showed that the kind of goals pursued could lead to different consequences not only in life in general, but also
Karla de Jesus, Helon V. H. Ayala, Kelly de Jesus, Leandro dos S. Coelho, Alexandre I.A. Medeiros, José A. Abraldes, Mário A.P. Vaz, Ricardo J. Fernandes and João Paulo Vilas-Boas
shorter distances to assess start performance better, which minimises the confounding effects of swimmers’ abilities during the glide and underwater swimming ( Fischer and Kibele, 2016 ; Garcia-Ramos et al., 2015 ).
Since short distance swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, an effective start is essential ( de Jesus et al., 2014 ), forcing coaches and competitors to search for and use newer and sometimes innovative solutions in the training process ( Wiktorowicz et al., 2015 ). The application of predictive models has been a supporting solution
Globalization and human migration are evident in many areas, among them sports. Migration is present in all countries around the world ( Eliasson, 2009 ; Maguire and Pearton, 2000 ). These countries can be the cause of emigration or immigration, or simply a travel destination, but most often, it is all three. Migration is a way for people to search for better living conditions. There is a distinction between internal migration, when people move within a country, and international migration, when people move between countries. If we overlook
assessed (i.e. mean ball velocity, movement time, arm velocity at contact and peak arm velocity) between the conditions. The authors did not provide a possible explanation for their results; however, their experiment was based on a small sample size because kinematic measures were taken only in the first trial of each condition. This method was the first to assess movement behaviour under pressure using three-dimensional kinematic analysis. The use of three-dimensional analyses of sports movement has been well-supported, primarily, because it can measure rotational and
Vladimir M. Akulin, Frederic Carlier, Stanislaw Solnik and Mark L. Latash
of the null-space and small noise typical of the orthogonal subspace in a stationary regime.
The Stability Search Algorithm and Motor Control Hypotheses
The most important axiom in our approach is the assumption of task-specific coordinate systems organized to allow effective local control. A particular implementation has been introduced as the ”act on the most nimble” (AMN) rule. We have shown that this method can solve problems better than control with random matrices, but loses efficacy with an increase in the task dimensionality, not so much
Diogo Monteiro, Carla Chicau Borrego, Carlos Silva, João Moutão, Daniel Almeida Marinho and Luís Cid
variations in behavioural investment, performance, psychological well-being, and affective responses in achievement contexts requires studying the criteria that individuals employ to judge competence and success. The AGT focuses on both individual achievement goals and the social context or goal structures that form such individual goals ( Ames, 1992 ). Grounded in the AGT, two main climates have been identified that reflect the work of Ames and Nicholls.
A task-involving climate is perceived when team members are directed towards selfimprovement, the coach or parent
Anna Brachman, Anna Kamieniarz, Justyna Michalska, Michał Pawłowski, Kajetan J. Słomka and Grzegorz Juras
described in detail. We made an exception for the four papers (PEDro 3) because of the better quality description of training protocols. The reviewers conducted the literature review independently, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 50 studies met the inclusion criteria for review ( Figure 1 ).
A flowchart illustrating the different phases of the search and study selection
No general agreement may be found in the literature regarding which terms should be used to summarize training
Julen Castellano, Pedro Silva, Oidui Usabiaga and Daniel Barreira
SSGs played on larger pitches. Thus, by manipulating field dimensions, practitioners can create favourable or unfavourable conditions for attacking and defending ( Silva et al., 2014a , 2014b ; Vilar et al., 2014 ). Silva et al. (2014b) , for instance, showed that players were further apart from their direct opponents when they played in fields of larger dimensions. The shape of the teams may also change according to the specific constraints acting on the players. Folgado et al. (2014) also showed that teams varied their shape during SSGs according to age and
Jorge Vargas, Manuel Loureiro, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle, Lorenzo Laporta, Rui Marcelino and Jose Afonso
assisted Japan in obtaining regular elite-level performances despite the lack of elite-level height. Such knowledge might aid in outlining alternate models for TIDS.
Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to analyse the Japanese National Women’s Volleyball Team and to identify items differentiating it from the other teams. Potentially, identified factors will assist in establishing new avenues for TIDS in volleyball. Furthermore, this might inform TIDS in general, illustrating that several paths are possible to achieve elite performance.
Alba Práxedes, Fernando Del Villar, David Pizarro and Alberto Moreno
passive defenders who become increasingly more active as learning increases, and passing to team-mates when opportunities arise) ( Chow et al., 2009 ).
The teaching-learning process under the NLP perspective is focused on the manipulation of relevant conditions (player, task and environment) in order to amplify the sources of information that can be used to guide students toward their objectives ( Passos et al., 2008 ), and ultimately promote a search for solutions for themselves. Specifically, in soccer, which is a sport of open motor skills, the game conditions