Accelerating progress in Artificial General Intelligence: Choosing a benchmark for natural world interaction
Measuring progress in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be difficult without commonly accepted methods of evaluation. An AGI benchmark would allow evaluation and comparison of the many computational intelligence algorithms that have been developed. In this paper I propose that a benchmark for natural world interaction would possess seven key characteristics: fitness, breadth, specificity, low cost, simplicity, range, and task focus. I also outline two benchmark examples that meet most of these criteria. In the first, the direction task, a human coach directs a machine to perform a novel task in an unfamiliar environment. The direction task is extremely broad, but may be idealistic. In the second, the AGI battery, AGI candidates are evaluated based on their performance on a collection of more specific tasks. The AGI battery is designed to be appropriate to the capabilities of currently existing systems. Both the direction task and the AGI battery would require further definition before implementing. The paper concludes with a description of a task that might be included in the AGI battery: the search and retrieve task.
papillomavirus infection and laryngeal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis, 2013,207(3):479-488.
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Introduction: As the global number of diabetes and the burden of depression together with other mental disorders increases, there is a need for better understanding of the connection between these diseases. In patients with diabetes, mental disorders are more common than in the general population, especially anxiety disorders and depression, which are often difficult to detect by health professionals.
Material and methods: Using the keywords searched in the international bibliographic databases: Embase, Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science. We analyzed clinical trials published in English and international journals
Results: Patients with diabetes are exposed to serious physical and mental complications. The occurence of depression and psychiatric disorders among people with diabetes was twice as frequent as in the general population. There are also studies showing a higher risk of suicide among people with diabetes. In addition, patients with both diseases, diabetes and depression, had an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and increased mortality and higher costs of health care. Diabetic patients have increased incidence of anxiety disorders in relation to non-diabetic patients by 20%.
Conclusion: Further researches and integration of medical and psychological treatment are needed. Cooperation between psychiatrists and diabetologists can reduce mental and physical harm in patients with diabetes.
Pomanjkljivosti Poslovnih Procesov v Zdravstvenih Organizacijah: Primer Okulistične Ambulante
Namen: Razumevanje poslovnih procesov je ključni element pri prenovi poslovanja. Kljub temu pa mu v praksi slovenskega zdravstva namenjamo premalo pozornosti. Namen raziskave je pokazati, da je s pomočjo ustreznega popisa poslovnih procesov mogoče prepoznati neučinkovite elemente, ki povzročajo nevidne izgube v poslovanju.
Metode: Uporabili smo so metodo pregleda literature, metodo opazovanja, metodo intervjuja in metodo modeliranja procesov ter v konkretni okulistični ambulanti popisali ključne poslovne procese s pomočjo dogodkovno vodenih procesnih verig ter ugotavljali pomanjkljivosti.
Rezultati: Zaradi pomanjkljivosti v poslovnih procesih v konkretni okulistični ambulanti z dvema zaposlenima neracionalno izrabijo približno 25,5 ur delovnega časa na mesec (15,2 % celotnega delovnega časa na enega zaposlenega).
Zaključek: Na podlagi ugotovitve, da so tolikšne pomanjkljivosti prisotne že v manjši zdravstveni organizaciji z dvema zaposlenima, lahko pričakujemo, da njihov obseg v kompleksnejših organizacijah še bistveno večji. Vodstvom zdravstvenih organizacij priporočamo, da omenjeni problematiki posvetijo posebno pozornost ter izvedejo popis in optimizacijo poslovnih procesov. Omenjene dejavnosti je potrebno izvesti pred uvedbo ali prenovo informacijskega sistema.
Matteo Leonetti, Petar Kormushev and Simone Sagratella
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Introduction:The research study deals with the personality of managers in regard to their professional career. The main objective of the study was to find the relationship between the personality dimensions according to the Big Five personality traits model and Holland’s typology of the six personality types and work environment types.
Methods:The research sample consisted of 121 managers from different levels of the subordinate system in state organizations and private companies in Slovakia. The personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were in this research measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. We have also used the SDS questionnaire - Self-Directed Search to determine the personality types and work environment types - RIASEC codes. The statistical evaluation was performed using the SPSS 20 statistical system, with the data evaluated by methods of descriptive and correlation analysis.
Results:There were the highest values recorded in Conscientiousness throughout the research sample. The lowest values were recorded in Neuroticism. We found out that the Summary Code of managers is ESI (Enterprising, Social, Investigative), of male managers is EIR (Enterprising, Investigative, Realistic), of female managers is SEC (Social, Enterprising, Conventional). When comparing the individual RIASEC personality types, we found significant differences between males and females. Males are more realistic than females, more investigative and enterprising than females. Females are more social and conventional compared to males. There was no gender difference in artistic orientation. The RIASEC personality types in the entire sample match the RIASEC work environment types according to SDS, regardless of age. The results demonstrated relationships between the NEO - FFI personality dimensions and personality types and RIASEC work environment types codes according to SDS.
Discussion:We can say that managers in our research sample are primarily Enterprising types with leading life orientation. Typical representatives of this personality type are characterized especially by traits such as dominance, ambition, focus on success, self-confidence, sociability, and responsibility. In the context of a manager’s success and their effectiveness, or ineffectiveness in work environment, the most predictive Big Five factor for an effective manager is Neuroticism, all effective managers scored low in Neuroticism. Results obtained by the SDS questionnaire - Self-Directed Search confirm our findings of prevalent personality dimensions in the overall personality profile of managers. The overall RIASEC personality code of managers according to SDS is ESI in the whole research sample, thus we can conclude that in the case of the overall personality type - RIASEC code of manager the dominant personality type is Enterprising/leading, followed by the Social personality type and the third is the Investigative personality type.
Limitations:One of the methodological limitations of this research is the number of participants in the research sample. We do not consider this number as representative for the purpose of generalizing the results.
Conclusions:Research results show that there is a relationship between professional orientation and personality. Some personality dimensions are significantly related to professional orientation types and to professional interests, whereas others are related only non-significantly or not at all. Significant relations were found between the dimension Openness and Artistic, Leading, and Social type, between the dimension Extraversion and Enterprising and Investigative type, and between the dimension Agreeableness and the Social type. Realistic type was not related to any personality dimension. The dimension Neuroticism was negatively related to all professional types. For the career counseling practice and selection of job seekers and manager position applicants, this may mean that despite confirmation of these convergences, there may be different relations between different Holland’s professional types and personality dimensions.
These findings can be the focus of further research on students in their final year of secondary school when they are deciding on their future professional career.
This research study, we believe, has contributed to the understanding of the relationship between personality and professional career. The results confirm that professional orientation and personality interact and influence the professional behavior of a person.
Liisi Jääts, Kersti Kihno, Pille Tomson and Marge Konsa
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