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Małgorzata Wilk, Aneta Magdziarz, Monika Zajemska and Monika Kuźnia

References Topical report number 14, 1999. Reburning technologies for the control of nitrogen oxides emissions from coalfired boilers. A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between: The U.S. Department of Energy and The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, New York State Electric & Gas Corporation. Adamczuk M., Radomiak H., 2010. The use of computer programs for the numerical modelling of combustion process and gas dynamics in heating

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Marek Juszczak

REFERENCES Boman C., Pettersson E., Westerholm R., Bostrom D., Nordin A., 2011. Stove performance and emission characteristic in residential wood log and pellet combustion. Part 1: Pellet stoves. Energy Fuels , 25, 307-314. DOI: 10.1021/ef100774x. Francisco Josephinum Wieselburg BLT, 2009. Pellets heating boiler. PelletsUnit ETA PU 15. Test Raport. BLT approval number: 036/09. Francisco Josephinum Wieselburg BLT, 2010. Pellets heating boiler. PelletsCompact ETA PC 25. Test fuel: Wood pellets. BLT approval number: 021/10. Gible C., Ohman M

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Marcin Kopczyński, Agnieszka Plis and Jarosław Zuwała

References Ahamed T., Alshehri S.M., 2012. TG-FTIR-MS (Evolved Gas Analysis) of bidi tobacco powder during combustion and pyrolysis. J. Hazard. Mater., 200, 199-200. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.10.090. Bergman P.C.A., 2005. Combined torrefaction and pelletisation - The TOP process. ECN publication, Report ECN-C-05-073, available at: www.ecn.nl. Bioenergy, 2000. A new process for Torrefied wood manufacturing. General bioenergy. 2 (4). Branca C., Iannace A., Di Blasi C., 2007. Devolatilization and

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Adrian Balicki and Łukasz Bartela

References `[1] Toftegaard M.B., Brix J., Jensen P.A.: Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels. Prog. Energ. Combust. Sci. 36(2010), 581-625. [2] Wall T., Liu Y., Spero C.: An overview on oxyfuel coal combustion - State of the art research and technology development. Chem. Eng. Res. Design 87(2009), 1003-1016. [3] Suraniti S.L., Nsakala ya Nsakala, Darling S.L.: Alstom Oxyfuel CFB boilers: a promising option for CO2 capture. Energy Procedia 1(2009), 543-548. [4] Muskała W., KrzywańskiJ., Czakiert T

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Małgorzata Szynkowska, Ewa Leśniewska, Aleksandra Pawlaczyk, Jadwiga Albińska, Katarzyna Bawolak and Tadeusz Paryjczak

References Steenari B. M., Lindqvist O.: Fly ash characteristics in co-combustion of wood with coal, oil or peat. Fuel 78 ( 1999 ) 479 - 488. Yudovich Y. E., Ketris M. P.: Mercury in coal: a review. Part 2. Coal use and environmental problems. International Journal of Coal Geology 62 ( 2005 ) 135 - 165. COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on Community Strategy Concerning Mercury SEC(2005)101, Brussels

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Łukasz Dunajski, Wojciech Kruk and Wojciech Nowak

Abstract

According to a fuel flexibility, fluidized bed boilers are considered as appropriate for biomass combustion as cofiring. But the burning of fuels such as forest and agricultural biomass raises a number of operational problems. Most important of these problems are bed agglomeration and deposition. Deposition appears when biomass contains significant amounts of alkali elements, such as sodium and potassium. The purpose of the work is to select a fuel additive to overcome these operational problems. Investigations were conducted in two stages at a pilot scale 0.1 MWth laboratory circulating fluidized bed reactor. As the fuel, the mixture of biomass contained forest residues, sunflower husks, straw and wood pellets from mixed woods was selected. In the first stage biomass was burnt without any additives, while in the second one the fuel was enriched with some additive. The additive (liquid mixture of chemicals) was added to the fuel in amounts of 1 dm3 per 5-10 Mg of fuel. The following operational parameters were examined: temperature profiles along the height of the circulating fluidised bed column, pressure profiles, emissions. After the tests, the laboratory reactor was inspected inside. Its results enables expression of the following conclusions: there was no agglomeration during fuel additive testing, and the deposition was reduced as well. Moreover, the parts (heating surfaces, separator) of the laboratory reactor were coated with a protective layer. The layer covered microcracks and protected the parts from deposition for a long period after the operation.

Open access

Janusz Kotowicz and Marcin Job

.S.: Characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion in gas turbines. Applied Energy, 89(2012), 38-394. [5] Zhanga N., Lior N.: Two novel oxy-fuel power cycles integrated with natural gas reforming and CO2 capture. Energy 33(2008), 340-351. [6] Kotowicz J., Job M.: Optimization of the steam part parameters in the CCGT unit with oxy-combustion and the carbon capture installation. Rynek Energii 107(2013), 4, 48-55 (in Polish). [7] Kotowicz J.: Combined Cycle Power Plants. Wydawnictwo KAPRINT, Lublin 2008 (in Polish). [8] Kotowicz

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Arkadiusz Jamrozik and Wojciech Tutak

References Bernhardt M., Michałowska J., Radzimirski S., 1976. Automotive air pollution . Wydawnictwa Komunikacji i Łączności, Warszawa (in Polish). Bocian P., Teodorczyk A., Rychter T., 2001. Study of ignition of a gaseous fuel jet in a dual chamber configuration. Journal of KONES. Combustion Engines , 8, 172-176. Charlton S.J., Jager D.J., Wilson M., 1990. Computer modelling and experimental investigation of a lean burn natural gas engine. SAE Paper , 900228, 536-542. DOI: 10

Open access

Andrzej Ziębik and Paweł Gładysz

References [1] Ziębik A., Gładysz P.: System approach to the energy analysis of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant . Rynek Energii 101(2012), 4, 137-146. [2] Ziębik A., Gładysz P.: Systems analysis of exergy losses in an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant . In: Proc. ECOS Int. Conf., Perugia, 26-29 June, 2012. [3] Szargut J., Ziębik A.: Fundamentals of Thermal Engineering . PWN, Warsaw 2000 (in Polish). [4] Szargut J.: Exergy. Handbook of Calculation and Application

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Dorota Nowak-Woźny, Wojciech Moroń, Bartosz Urbanek and Wiesław Rybak

. Anal. , 16, 91-102. Wall T., Yinghui L., Spero C., Elliott L., Khare S., Rathnam R., Zeenathal F., Moghtaderi B., Buhre B., Sheng C., Gupta R., Yamada T., Makino K., Yu Jianglong, 2009. An overview on oxyfuel coal combustion-State of the art research and technology development. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. , 87, 1003-1016. DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2009.02.005. Werther J., Ogada T., 1999. Sewage sludge combustion. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. , 25, 55-116. DOI: 10.1016/S0360-1285(98)00020-3. Wang Ch., Jia L., Tan Y., Anthoney J