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Juliana Ivanova, Emilia Petrova, Kalina Kamenova and Yordanka Gluhcheva

salt of monensic acid-An antidote for subacute cadmium intoxication: a study using an ICR mouse model. J Trace Elem Med Biol 26 : 279–84. Ivanova Ju, Pantcheva IN, Zhorova R, Momekov G, Simova S, Stoyanova R, Zhecheva E, Ivanova S, Mitewa M. (2012b). Synthesis, spectral properties, antibacterial and antitumor activity of Salinomycin complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) transition metal ions. J Chem Chem Eng 6 : 51–562. Ivanova Ju, Gluhcheva Y, Arpadjan S, Mitewa M. (2014a). Effect of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac function of

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Gagan Flora, Deepesh Gupta and Archana Tiwari

Damage and Oxygen Deprivation Stress: a Review. Ann Bot 91 : 179-194 . Bravo A, Anacona JR. (2001). Metal complexes of the fl avonoid quercetin: antibacterial properties. Trans Met Chem 26: 20-23. Brent JA. (2006). Review of: “Medical Toxicology”. Clin Toxicol 44: 355-355. Bressler J, Kim KA, Chakraborti T, Goldstein G. (1999). Molecular mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res 24: 595-600. Chang BJ, Jang BJ, Son TG, Cho IH, Quan FS, Choe NH, Nahm SS, Lee JH. (2012). Ascorbic acid

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Paweł Kwiatkowski, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Małgorzata Mizielińska and Artur Bartkowiak

essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Res Pharm Sci, 2011; 6:13-21. 7. Thippeswamy NB, Naidu KA, Achur RN. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phenolic extract from Carum carvi L. J Pharm Res 2013; 7:352-7. 8. Rahimi R, Ardekani MRS. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy. Chin J Integr Med, 2013; 19:73-9. 9. Bachir RG, Benali M. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia

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Ewa Majewska, Mariola Kozłowska, Dorota Kowalska and Eliza Gruczyńska

, Ochocka JR. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of juniper berry oil and its selected compounds. Phytotheraphy Res 2003; 17:227-231. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1110 30. Pepeljnjak S, Kosalec I, Kalodera Z, Blazević Z. Antimicrobial activity of juniper berry essential oil (Juniperus communis L. Cupressaceae). Acta Pharm 2005; 55:417-422. 31. Haziri A, Faiuku F, Mehmeti A, Govori S, Abazi S, Daci M et al. Antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Juniperus communis L. growing wild in east park of Kosovo. Am J Pharma

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Mayyada F. Darweesh

pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii Isolates. Al-Kufa University J. for Biology 8(3): 300-312, 2016. 7. Harvey, R.A. and Champe, D.C.: Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology 5th ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA. 382-385, 2012. 8. Fuad, M.M.et al.: In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Common Antibiotics and Herb Extracts to Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli Collected from UTI Patient. Int. J. of Rese in Pharmacel and Biomedi Sciences. 3(2): 987-992, 2012. 9. Wang, H. et al.: Comparison of phytochemical

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Said Oulkheir, Hadia Boumariem, Hanane Dand, Mohamed Aghrouch, Khadija Ounine, Allal Douira and Smail Chadli

study on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bloodstream infections: extended perspectives beyond resistance. Am J Infect Control 2010; 8:(10) 839-845. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2010.04.212 4. David MZ, Daum RS. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010; 23(3):616-687. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00081-09 5. Dorman HJ.D, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J

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Joanna Szydełko, Magdalena Szydełko and Anna Boguszewska-Czubara

. Satyanarayana MN. Capsaicin and gastric ulcers. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006; 46(4):275-328. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040-830491379236 48. Cichewicz RH, Thorpe PA. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 52(2):61-70. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(96)01384-0 49. Santos MM, Vieira-da-Motta O, Vieira IJ, Braz-Filho R, Goncalves PS, Maria EJ et al. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum annuum extract and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives against

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Mohaddese Mahboubi, Rezvan Heidarytabar and Elaheh Mahdizadeh

. 10. Fallah F, Taherpour A, Borhan RS, Hashemi A, Habibi M, Sajadi Nia R. Evaluation of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamaseproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2013; 26:193-198. 11. Gavanji S, Mohammadi E, Larki B, Bakhtari A. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition. Integ Med Res 2014; 3:142-52. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2014.07.001 12. Mahboubi M

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Tomasz M. Karpiński and Artur Adamczak

(38/1):129-135. 12. Sobolewska A, Sztanke M, Pasternak K. Składniki borowiny i jej właściwości lecznicze. Balneol Pol 2007; 2:93-98. 13. Asakawa Y. Biologically active substances from bryophytes. In: Chopra RN, Bhatla SC, eds. Bryophyte development - physiology and biochemistry. Boston, CRC Press, 1990:259-287. 14. Nikolajeva V, Liepina L, Petrina Z, Krumina G, Grube M, Muiznieks I. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some bryophytes. Adv Microbiol 2012; 2:345-353. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aim.2012.23042 15. Ertürk Ö

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Ines Ouerghemmi, Mouna Ben Farhat, Hela Harbeoui, Majdi Hammami, Ghaith Hamdaoui, Brahim Marzouk and Moufida Saidane Tounsi

Summary

Introduction: Solanum sodomaeum L. has been observed to have several medicinal properties, in particular, in the treatment of several types of human skin cancer.

Objective: The influence of the maturation stage of S. sodomaeum fruits on the total lipid contents, fatty acid profiles, essential oil yields and compositions, as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils, was investigated.

Methods: The fatty acid and essential oil constituents were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antioxidant properties of essential oil and vegetal oil were assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and reducing power assays. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was tested using the disc diffusion assay for resistance in human pathogenic bacteria.

Results: Mature fruits showed higher total lipid content (17%) and were characterised by polyunsaturated fatty acids (53.87%), represented mainly by linoleic acid (53.11%). Similar yields of essential oils were detected for immature (0.43%) and mature (0.45%) fruits. Tetrahydronaphthalene (41.79%) was detected as the major essential oil component at the immature stage versus dihydrocoumarin pentane (18.27%), hexadecanoic acid (17.43%) and 2-undecanone (13.20%) in mature fruits. The DPPH test showed that essential oils had better antioxidant properties; however, the vegetal oils showed better performance in the reducing power assay. Moreover, the essential oil of S. sodomaeum mature fruits was active against bacterial strains.

Conclusions: S. sodomaeum fruits could be a valuable source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agents.