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Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep
Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.
Clay mineralogy of the Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic sedimentary sequence from the northern part of the Arabian Platform, Hazro (Diyarbakır, Southeast Anatolia)
The Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic units in the Diyarbakır-Hazro region consist of sandstone (subarkose, quartz arenite), mudstone, shale, coal, marl, dolomitic marl, limestone (biomicrite, lithobiosparite, biosparite with lithoclast, dololithobiosparite, dolomitic cherty sparite) and dolomite (dolosparite, dolosparite with lithoclast, biodolosparite with glauconite). These units exhibit no slaty cleavage although they are oriented parallel to bedding planes. The sedimentary rocks contain mainly calcite, dolomite, quartz, feldspar, goethite and phyllosilicates (kaolinite, illite-smectite (I-S), illite and glauconite) associated with small amounts of gypsum, jarosite, hematite and gibbsite. The amounts of quartz and feldspar in the Silurian-Devonian units and of dolomite in the Permian-Triassic units increase. Kaolinite is more commonly observed in the Silurian-Devonian and Permian units, whereas illite and I-S are found mostly in the Middle Devonian and Triassic units. Vertical distributions of clay minerals depend on lithological differences rather than diagenetic/metamorphic grade. Authigenetic kaolinites as pseudo-hexagonal bouquets and glauconite and I-S as fine-grained flakes or filaments are more abundantly present in the levels of clastic and carbonate rocks. Illite quantities in R3 and R1 I-S vary between 80 and 95 %. 2M1+1Md illites/I-S are characterized by moderate b cell values (9.005-9.040, mean 9.020 Å), whereas glauconites have higher values in the range of 9.054-9.072, mean 9.066 Å. KI values of illites (0.72-1.56, mean 1.03 Δ2θ°) show no an important vertical difference. Inorganic (mineral assemblages, KI, polytype) and organic maturation (vitrinite reflection) parameters in the Paleozoic-Triassic units agree with each others in majority that show high-grade diagenesis and catagenesis (light petroleum-wet gas hydrocarbon zone), respectively. The Paleozoic-Triassic sequence in this region was deposited in the environment of a passive continental margin and entirely resembles the Eastern Taurus Para-Autochthon Unit (Geyikdağı Unit) in respect of lithology and diagenetic grade.
Dariusz Wojdan, Ilona Żeber-Dzikowska, Barbara Gworek, Agnieszka Pastuszko and Jarosław Chmielewski
The study was conducted in 2016-2017 in the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area (area 26,485 ha). It was focused on the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, the biology of the selected species and the existing threats.
Established in 1995, the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area surrounds the city of Kielce from the north, east and south-east, and adjoins several other protected areas. It covers the western part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (part of the Klonowskie and Masłowskie ranges) and the southern part of the Suchedniów Plateau. The studied area is mostly covered by forest and thicket communities (48.1%) and farmlands (39.9%), followed by built-up areas (7.8%), industrial areas (0.5%), roads and railways (2.7%), and surface water bodies (1%).
The protected area is developed mainly on Palaeozoic rocks, including Cambrian and Ordovician sandstones, Silurian and Carboniferous shales, and Devonian marls. Podzolic soils predominate among soils. The largest rivers include Lubrzanka, Czarna Nida, Bobrza and Belnianka. There are no natural lakes within the PLPA limits, and the largest artificial reservoirs include the Cedzyna Reservoir, Morawica Reservoir, Suków Sandpit and two sedimentation reservoirs of the Kielce Power Plant. The area includes 2 nature reserves: Barcza and Sufraganiec.
The following amphibian species were recognised during the investigations within the borders of the studied area: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., natterjack toad Epidalea calamita Laur., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., and common frog Rana temporaria L. The reptiles were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The study also included the phenology and breeding biology of the common toad and common frog.
The most crucial herpetofauna conservation problems identified here include amphibians killed on roads by vehicles. The study area is intersected by very busy roads, in particular: European route no. E77, national roads nos. 73, 74 and S74, and regional roads nos. 745, 750 and 764. For this reason, future road reconstruction projects should consider the assembly of various crossing roads for wildlife, particularly on the 600 m long section of national road no. 74 near Cedzyna Reservoir. Other threats include illegal waste dumping, pollution of surface waters, fire setting, overgrowing and desiccation of small water bodies.
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