epicuticular waxes on living plant surfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). J. Exp. Bot. 55: 711-718. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erh077 Riederer M. & Müller C. (eds.). 2006. Biology of the Plant Cuticle. 438 pp. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. Tomaszewski D. & Zieliński J. 2014. Epicuticular wax structures on stems and comparison between stems and leaves - A survey. Flora 209: 215-232. DOI: 10.1016/j. flora.2014.03.001
Dominik Tomaszewski and Jerzy Zieliński
. Urząd Miasta Krakowa, Wydział Kształtowania Środowiska, Kraków. Dudley S. A. & Schm idt J. 1995. Genetic differentiation in morphological responses to simulated foliage shade between populations of Impatiens capensis from open and woodland sites. Funct. Ecol. 9(3): 655-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2390158 Dudley S. A. & Schm idt J. 1996. Testing the adaptive plasticity hypothesis: Density-dependent selection on manipulated stem length in Impatiens capensis. Amer. Nat. 147: 445-465. http://dx.doi.org/10
Literature cited Abedi-Tizaki, M., Zafari, D. and Sadeghi, J. 2016. First report of Fusarium solani causing stem rot of Dracaena in Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research , 56: 100-103. Aoki, T., O’Donnell, K. and Geiser, D.M. 2014. Systematics of key phytopathogenic Fusarium species: current status and future challenges. Journal of General Plant Pathology , 80: 189–201. Arias, M.M.D., Munkvold, G.P. and Leandro. L.F. 2011. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing root rot on soybean ( Glycine max ) in the United States
M. Ghasemialitappeh, M. Sadravi and A. Mirabadi
Trichoderma fungus species are highly populations of fungi in world that they can colonize roots as plant symbiosis. Various types of Trichoderma are free-living fungi that are, generally, saprophytic on the remains of soil. In addition to its role in biological control, this fungus increases plant yield and growth. So far, many studies have been conducted to examine the ability of this agent to reduce biological tensions and biological control of plant pathogens. Thus, this study was conducted to isolate and identify species of Trichoderma fungus from rapeseed fields in Golestan and Qazvin province from Iran, and also to study isolated species on germination percentage and growth parameters of rapeseed seedlings in a randomized complete block design with three replications in vitro. Based on the results, three species of T. harzianum, T. virens, and T. atroviride were identified, which the isolate of T. harzianum Ta19 showed a significant effect on the control group and other treatments in increasing germination percentage, root length and stem; whereas, the seeds treated with the isolate T. atroviride Ta11 showed no significant difference with the control group in spite of the increase in seed germination rate in comparison with the control and other treatments. According to the results, the use of Trichoderma fungus as a seed treatment like other researches on different products is recommended for increasing the growth of rapeseed.
Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt, Maciej Kozak and Katarzyna Kozłowska-Kozak
The investigations presented here were carried out in years 2013-14, in a Molinietum caeruleae meadow with interrupted plant cover caused by animal activity (patch I); abandoned Molinietum caeruleae meadows with untouched plant canopy, dominated by species with considerable height of the above-ground parts (patches II-VI); as well as the edge (patch VII) and the interior (patch VIII) of a birch woodlot. The height of standing vegetation and soil moisture increased in subsequent patches, whereas the light availability at ground level showed inverse tendency. The abundance of Trollius europaeus subpopulations in all studied patches was rather low. In patch I, juvenile individuals dominated, while in other stands - flowering adults prevailed. The lack of temporal variability in the number of basal leaves observed in patches III, IV, V, VI and VII might be due to lack of available area necessary for clonal proliferation of ramets, while the increase of basal leaves number in other sites might suggest unlimited iterative growth. The dimensions of basal leaves in consecutive years were constant in majority of subpopulations, while they showed strong spatial variability increasing gradually from patch I to patch VII and, subsequently, decreasing in patch VIII. The substantial dimensions of basal leaves may enable better light capture in sites with great level of lateral shade, while smaller dimensions in patches located within a woodlot may be due to shade from above created by trees. Lack of temporal variability and presence of substantial spatial variability in the number and height of generative stems, as well as flower production might enhance chances for successful pollination in a competitive environment. Significant changes of follicle number in time and space suggest successful process of pollination in all patches excluding patch VIII. The weak condition of the ramet clusters in patch I is not compensated by considerable seedling recruitment, whereas the satisfactory state of the ramet clusters in patches II-VIII may not suffice for the long-term maintenance of populations in colonized areas.
Andrzej Pacholczak, Karolina Nowakowska, Natalia Mika and Monika Borkowska
rooting in leafy rose stem cuttings and starch dynamics following severance. Acta Hort. 751: 495-502. D irr M.A., 2009. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes Publishing L.L.C., Champaign, France. D obrzański A., A nyszka Z., E lkner K., 2008. Reakcja marchwi na ekstrakty pochodzenia naturalnego z alg z rodzaju Sargassum – AlgaminoPlant i z leonardytu – HumiPlant [Carrot response to natural extracts from Sargassum algae – AlgaminoPlant and from leonardit – HumiPlant]. J. Res. Appl. Agric. Engng. 53: 53-58. D ubois M., G illes K.A., H amilton
Maria Gawęda and Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska
atmospheres. Post. Biol. Technol. 41: 181-190. Escalona V.H., Aguayo E., Artes F., 2007 a. Modified atmosphere packaging improved quality of kohlrabi stems. LWT 40: 397-403. Escalona V.H., Aguayo E., Artes F., 2007 b. Quality changes of fresh-cut kohlrabi sticks under modified atmosphere packaging. J. Food Sci. 72: 303-307. Escalona V.H., Aguayo E., Artes F., 2007 c. Extending the shelf life of kohlrabi stems by modified atmosphere packaging. J. Food Sci. 72: 308
Cao D. Dung, Kevin Seaton and Zora Singh
.E., 1995. Source-sink relationship and Protea postharvest leaf blackening. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 120: 475-480. H e S., J oyce D.C., I rving D.E., 2006. Competition for water between inflorescences and leaves in cut flowering stems of Grevillea ‘Crimson Yul-lo’. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 81: 891-897. J oyce D.C., 1988. Posthavest characteristics of Geraldton wax flowers. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113: 738-742. J oyce D.C., 1993. Posthavest floral fall in Geraldton wax flower ( Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer). Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 33: 481
Joanna Romanek, Jolanta Opiela and Zdzisław Smorąg
References Arno A.I., Amini- Nik S., Blit P.H., Al- Shehab M., Belo C., Herer E., Jeschke M.G. (2014). Effect of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell paracrine signaling on keloid fibroblasts. Stem Cells Transl. Med., 3: 299-307. Atsuta I., Liu S., Miura Y., Akiyama K., Chen C., An Y., Shi S., Chen F.M. (2013). Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit multiple myeloma cells via the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. Stem Cell Res. Ther., 4: 111. Bogliolo L., Ariu F., Leoni G., Uccheddu S., Bebbere D. (2011). High hydrostatic
Elżbieta Jędrszczyk and Anna M. Ambroszczyk
The effect of different methods of NANO-GRO® application on tomato plant growth and yield and its quality was determined. Four treatments were used: soaking seeds with NANO-GRO®, plants spraying, double application: soaking seeds + plants spraying and a control without NANO-GRO®. The cultivar Mieszko F1 was used for the study. A significant influence of NANO-GRO® application method on tomato plant growth, yield and quality was observed. Pre-sowing application positively influenced plant height and the thickness of the stems. The highest total and marketable yield was observed in plants whose seeds were soaked with NANO-GRO® (respectively 87.02 and 53.13 t ha−1) and in those with double application (respectively 73.48 and 45.67 t ha−1). The lowest marketable yield was found in the plants from the control (37.01 t ha−1). The highest lycopene content compared to the control was measured in fruits from plants sprayed with NANO-GRO®.