României, Ed. Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti. (in Romanian)
21. Sedeño-Díaz J. E., Kohlmnan B. and López-López E., 2012 - Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality in streams of Costa Rica: using an adaptation of the BMWP score, Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research, The Wetlands Diversity, Curtean-Bănăduc et al. (eds), 14, 163-175.
22. Varnosfaderany M. N., Ebrahimi E., Mirghaffry N. and Safyanian A., 2010 - Assessment of the Zayandeh Rud River, Iran, using benthic macroinvertebrates
Paweł Konieczyński, Jan Moszczyński and Marek Wesołowski
component scores and principal component loadings. Two first principal components accounted for 81% of variability among the investigated plant material, and the eigen -values for them were equal to 3.67 and 1.19, respectively. As it can be seen in Figure 5 , the samples of spruce needles growing in Gdansk are located in the upper left corner of the two-dimensional plot of PC1 and PC2. Only one of them, sample GK2 is located in the left down area of the plot. This sample (GK2) contained higher amounts of Fe and Pb in comparison with others, which is the reason for its
This study aimed to demonstrate efficiency of documented index method “universal water quality index-UWQI” to evaluate surface water quality and investigate seasonal and temporal changes, in the case of Gediz River Basin Turkey. UWQI expressed results relative to levels according to criteria specified in European legislation (75-440 EEC). The method produced a unitless number ranging from 1 to 100 and a higher number was indicator of better water quality. Water quality is classified into five classes and index scores between 95-100 represent excellent and lower than 24 represent poor quality. In the study, dissolved oxygen-DO, pH, mercury-Hg, cadmium-Cd, total phosphorus-TP, biochemical oxygen demand- BOD and nitrate nitrogen-NO3-N have been chosen as index determinants. Samples analyzed for these variables were collected from five stations on monthly basis along two years. Based on UWQI classification scheme, water quality at sampling stations had scores below 40 and assigned to “marginal” which is between fair and poor quality class. On the other hand sub-indices of water quality determinants showed seasonal differences for some parameters. Cd concentrations were higher in “high flow” and lower values were observed in “low flow” periods. This was explained by negative impact of urban runoff on water quality. On the other hand DO concentrations were higher in “high flow” period. Under “low flow” conditions water quality at upstream stations (where the industrial density is low) was comparably better than downstream part. The study showed that index approach can be efficient tool to: a) evaluate water quality, b) investigate spatial and seasonal variations and finally, c) extract required information from complex data sets that is understandable by non-technical people.
Five parallel channels of the Narew River (NE Poland) were hydromorphologically assessed with the River Habitat Survey (RHS) method. Four out of the five studied channels were partly separated from the functioning system of the anastomosing river by a dike for more than 20 years, and were subjected to gradual overgrowing and shallowing. In the 1990’s and in 2002, a number of renaturisation measures were implemented, restoring sufficient discharge for the channels to make them active again. The Habitat Modification Score (HMS) obtained as a result of the survey only classifies the fragment ecologically to the third class of streams with high HMS value in the case of the current main channel of the Narew River (largely formed in an artificial manner). This suggests substantial anthropogenic changes in the river channel and its vicinity. The aggregate values of the Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA) index suggest the preservation of numerous environmentally valuable elements at all of the five studied sites of the anastomosing Narew River system. This even concerns channels which remained almost separated and functioned as oxbow lakes for more than 20 years. The highest HQA values were recorded in the case of the channel constituting the main channel before the regulation, and a neighbouring regulated channel currently fulfilling the function of the main water course in this cross-section. In spite of long-term negative changes, the studied fragment of the ecosystem of the anastomosing river is distinguished by high resistance to “anthropogenic stress”, and high capacity for spontaneous restoration of a state close to the natural one. Although lotic ecosystems constitute elements of the natural environment particularly sensitive to anthropopressure, they retain the ability to regenerate for a long time, under the condition of providing them with relevant hydrological and ecological conditions.
Boban S. Đorđević, Dejan B. Đurović, Gordan D. Zec, Aleksandar B. Radović and Todor B. Vulić
The focus of our research was to evaluate different apples cultivars in terms of their biological properties and bioactive compounds content, and determine the levels of their resistance (or susceptibility) to fire blight. The properties of 10 scab-resistant apple cultivars were examined on the Žiča monastery estate (West Serbia) during the period from 2011 to 2015. The biological and chemical properties such as firmness, maturity stage, total soluble solids, total acids, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and surface blush of apple fruits were monitored. Various phenolic compounds in the tested samples were tentatively identified by LC-MS analyses. A study of generative properties included: number of flower buds, fruit mass and width, crop load, yield efficiency and yield. During the period of blooming and intensive shoot growth, artificial inoculations were carried out. For each cultivar, a fire blight score was determined by dividing the average length of necrotic tissue by the average total shoot length. In the study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’ (41.1 t ha−1) and ‘Florina’ (35.9 t ha−1) produced the highest yields, and the cultivars ‘Discovery’ (19.0 t ha−1) and Selection 25/63 (15.1 t ha−1) the lowest. The cultivar ‘William’s Pride’ produced the largest fruits, with an average fruit mass of 206.8 g. The earliest harvest period was recorded for the cultivar ‘Discovery’ (end of July), and the latest for the cultivar ‘GoldRush’ (beginning of October). The cultivar ‘Enterprise’ had the highest value of total phenols (432.2 mg 100 g−1 FW), while the cultivar ‘Topaz’ had the highest value of total flavanols (145.2 mg 100 g−1 FW). The highest degree of susceptibility to fire blight was found in Selection 25/63, and the greatest resistance was manifested by the cultivar ‘GoldRush’. In the five-year study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Enterprise’ exhibited better bio-chemical properties and higher levels of resistance to fire blight than the remaining cultivars.
Thi Minh Hang Vu, Viet Phu Tu and Klaus Duerrschmid
relationship, the high gazing group should possess higher percentage of choosing than other gazing groups, and vice versa.
In the ranking test, consumer decision-making is presented as ranking scores. A one-way ANOVA was performed as below to examine whether there are any significant differences in ranking scores between low, medium, and high gazing behaviour group.
R a n k i n g s c o r e s = m e a n + m a i n e f f e c t f o r G a z i n g g r o u p + e r r o r s
Ranking\, scores = mean + main\, effect\, for\, Gazing\, group +\\
Paul Ertl, Andreas Steinwidder, Magdalena Schönauer, Kurt Krimberger, Wilhelm Knaus and Werner Zollitsch
-edible fractions (% of protein and energy) of feedstuffs for a current (CURR) and a maximum (MAX) scenario (based on Ertl et al., 2015 and own calculations according to the same methods) and the calculated digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of the main human-edible feed protein sources ( Ertl et al., 2016 ) Tabelle 4. Angenommene humanernährungstaugliche Anteile von Futtermitteln unter einem derzeitigen (CURR) und einem Szenario mit maximalen Ausbeuten (MAX) (basierend auf Ertl et al., 2015 und eigenen Berechnungen nach denselben Methoden), sowie Score für
Jana Konečná, Petr Karásek, Petr Fučík, Jana Podhrázská, Michal Pochop, Stanislav Ryšavý and Roman Hanák
, Y., Söderqvist, T., Back, P.-E., Norin, M., Brinkhoff, P., Bergknut, M. & Döberl, G. (2013). SCORE: Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for sustainability appraisal of remedial alternatives. In Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies -2013. Second International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Jacksonville, FL; June 10-13, 2013.
 Ryšavý, S. et al. (2013). Jakostní model povodí Jihlavy nad VD Dalešice. Brno: Pöyry Environment.
 Sharpley, A. N. (1985). The selection erosion of
Lea Ranacher, Kathrin Höfferer, Miriam Lettner, Franziska Hesser, Tobias Stern, Romana Rauter and Peter Schwarzbauer
of future consequences (CFC) ( Strathman et al., 1994 ) before participating in the focus group. The CFS is a survey instrument to assess the extent to which people emphasize short-term or long-term consequences of their behavior. A high score (max. 50) indicates a focus on the future implications of a behavior, whereas a low score (min. 10) indicates a focus on current needs and concerns ( Strathman et al., 1994 ). Furthermore, the questionnaire contained a module on socio-demographic features to characterize the sample.
In total, four focus group discussions