Finnish with English summary).
T hiele J., K ollmann J. & A ndersen U. R. 2009. Ecological and socioeconomic correlates of plant invasions in Denmark: the utility of environmental assessment data. Ambio 38 : 89–94.
T hiele J., I sermann M., O tte A. & K ollmann J. 2010. Competitive displacement or biotic resistance? Disentangling relationships between community diversity and invasion success of tall herbs and shrubs. J. Veg. Sci. 21 : 213–220.
T hiele J., I sermann M., K ollmann J. & O tte A. 2011. Impact scores of invasive plants are
D. Johnston, D.A. Kenny, M. McGee, S.M. Waters, A.K. Kelly and B. Earley
, unilateral droop, head tilt or bilateral droop), presence of nasal discharge (none, small amount of unilateral discharge, bilateral or excessive discharge or copious bilateral discharge) and ocular discharges (none, small amount, moderate amount of bilateral discharge or heavy discharge) ( McGuirk and Peek, 2014 ). A modified version of the Wisconsin calf health scoring criteria was used to score the calves’ clinical measurements and determine the incidents of the BRDC ( McGuirk and Peek, 2014 ). A respiratory score was devised from the cumulative score from nasal
B. Murphy, P. Crosson, A.K. Kelly and R. Prendiville
due to the higher premium-earning capacity of steers ( Swinbank and Daugbjerg, 2006 ). Since then, the biological advantage of bulls compared to steers (superior growth rate, feed efficiency, carcass muscle proportion and the subsequent reduction in age at slaughter; Steen, 1995 ) has been exploited by beef producers.
A further consideration is that current UK market specifications stipulate that dairy bulls be slaughtered at <16 mo of age, achieve a minimum carcass weight of 270 kg and have conformation and fat scores of ‘O=’ and ‘2+’ or greater, respectively
member, trained according to AMSA (1995) standards, received six samples in randomised order (each panellist tasted the steak samples in a different order within each session) in two sets of three, with approximately 3 min intervals between each set. Panel members were provided with salt-free crackers and water for cleansing the palate between samples.
Panellists scored each sample for 16 attributes, defined and rated during different phases of eating ( Table 1 ). Roast beef aroma intensity was evaluated before eating, while the initial tenderness was the texture
Male meiotic studies were carried out on eight different accessions of Hedysarum astragaloides Benth. ex Baker (Fabaceae), an endemic and threatened species of northwest Himalaya, India. Although genetic factors such as meiosis, chromosome number, and ploidy level may be causative for the evolution, endemism, rare distribution or even extinction of the species, no detailed information exists. Keeping this in mind H. astragaloides has been studied cytologically. Male meiotic investigations revealed diploid level (2n=2x=14) for species and normal meiotic course in the accessions from the Manali Hills resulting in nearly 100% pollen fertility. However, the accessions scored from the Manimahesh Hills and Pangi Valley depicted inter-pollen mother cell transfer of chromatin material and structural heterozygosity for reciprocal translocations. Consequent upon these meiotic anomalies, some pollen sterility (21%) resulted. On account of this sweeping genetic outcome, the incidence of anomalies such as this in an endemic and threatened species warrants grave consideration. It is sensible to conclude that conservation measures should include the collection of germplasm from the localities where plants are meiotically stable with high gametic fertility, to ensure good germination and healthy plants for future use. Seeds from meiotically normal individuals should be given priority for inclusion in seed banks.
László Erdős, Márta Zalatnai, Zoltán Bátori and László Körmöczi
The study of boundaries is a recurring theme in ecology. However, boundaries have been examined mainly on fine scales (between communities) and on coarse scales (between biomes), while boundaries of intermediate scales (e.g. between community complexes) are quite neglected. In this study, we analysed boundaries between mesic and xeric community complexes in a sub-Mediterranean karst area of South Hungary. We applied the moving split window (MSW) technique for boundary analysis. First, since the behaviour ofMSWconcerning complex vegetation patterns is not fully understood, we prepared artificial datasets (simulated communities) to test its capacities. Second, we established north-south oriented belt transects across mountain ridges of the Villány Mts, and investigated the transition between the community complexes of differently exposed slopes. UsingMSW, we were able clearly to distinguish between transitional zones and zones that do not represent real transitions: peaks in the Z-score profile of MSW merge only in the case of transitional zones. Moreover, we found that peaks merge depending on the independence (distinctness) of the transitional zone: when it is distinct, peaks merge only at the largest window widths. In the Villány Mts, transitions seem to occur mostly in the grasslands north of the ridges. We demonstrated that these grasslands can be regarded as boundaries between mesic and xeric complexes or as zones in their own right, with their own two boundaries. Interpretation depends upon the scale of observation.
Boban S. Đorđević, Dejan B. Đurović, Gordan D. Zec, Aleksandar B. Radović and Todor B. Vulić
The focus of our research was to evaluate different apples cultivars in terms of their biological properties and bioactive compounds content, and determine the levels of their resistance (or susceptibility) to fire blight. The properties of 10 scab-resistant apple cultivars were examined on the Žiča monastery estate (West Serbia) during the period from 2011 to 2015. The biological and chemical properties such as firmness, maturity stage, total soluble solids, total acids, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and surface blush of apple fruits were monitored. Various phenolic compounds in the tested samples were tentatively identified by LC-MS analyses. A study of generative properties included: number of flower buds, fruit mass and width, crop load, yield efficiency and yield. During the period of blooming and intensive shoot growth, artificial inoculations were carried out. For each cultivar, a fire blight score was determined by dividing the average length of necrotic tissue by the average total shoot length. In the study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’ (41.1 t ha−1) and ‘Florina’ (35.9 t ha−1) produced the highest yields, and the cultivars ‘Discovery’ (19.0 t ha−1) and Selection 25/63 (15.1 t ha−1) the lowest. The cultivar ‘William’s Pride’ produced the largest fruits, with an average fruit mass of 206.8 g. The earliest harvest period was recorded for the cultivar ‘Discovery’ (end of July), and the latest for the cultivar ‘GoldRush’ (beginning of October). The cultivar ‘Enterprise’ had the highest value of total phenols (432.2 mg 100 g−1 FW), while the cultivar ‘Topaz’ had the highest value of total flavanols (145.2 mg 100 g−1 FW). The highest degree of susceptibility to fire blight was found in Selection 25/63, and the greatest resistance was manifested by the cultivar ‘GoldRush’. In the five-year study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Enterprise’ exhibited better bio-chemical properties and higher levels of resistance to fire blight than the remaining cultivars.
P. Tuohy, J. Humphreys, N.M. Holden, J. O’Loughlin, B. Reidy and O. Fenton
observed pedological attribute ( FAO 2006 ; Mueller et al ., 2007 ; Hartemink and Minasny, 2014 ). Initially each horizon in the soil profile is classified with respect to each of the indicators outlined. Each classification corresponds to a VDA score from which, when combined, soil permeability can be inferred ( Table 1 ).
Visual indicators of soil permeability, their interpretation, assigned visual drainage assessment (VDA) score and weighting (A =10, B = 4, C = 1)
D. Madden, S. Harrison, J.A. Finn and D. Ó hUallacháin
macroinvertebrates to CDPs, with some sites even showing an increase in abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates downstream of access points.
The objectives of this study were to assess the local-scale impact of CDPs on water quality parameters (i.e. macroinvertebrates and water chemistry metrics) and investigate whether streams with higher water quality scores are more likely to be adversely impacted by cattle access than those with lower water quality scores. It is anticipated that lessons learned from this study will help improve the targeting of future cattle exclusion