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Open access

Franciszek Kłosowski

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterise the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship and its determinants between 2010 and 2012, although in order to show certain trends in changes data from the beginning of the 21st century are also used as a basis whereas from the more forward-looking perspective, projections up until 2020 were used. This market is very important from the nationwide perspective, and this is due to its complexity, size (it concentrates 2 million employed people, that is 14.4% of the whole workforce of Poland) and specificity (industry still plays a crucial role). In order to achieve the objective indicated above, a set of measures relating to the number of employed people, business entities or GDP were used for the purpose of the analysis. The presented material shows the high volatility of the situation on the labour market both at the voivodeship level and individual communities – this is particularly true of the number of employed people and the rate of unemployment. An advantage of the newly created jobs over those that are shed which has been continuously recorded since 2008 and a decrease in the unemployment rate are positive symptoms. Katowice being the largest market and, moreover, characterised by the highest rank range of its impact and lowest unemployment rate have gained a dominant position in the regional labour market. Bielsko-Biała, Tychy, Gliwice and Bieruń-Lędziny County also clearly stand out against the background of other communities. The most difficult situation can be observed in Bytom, Świętochłowice, Piekary Śląskie and in the counties located in the northern part of the voivodeship, that is Częstochowa, Myszków and Zawiercie. Not only today but also in the coming decade, in terms of demand the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship will be strongly affected by its demographic situation; population decline, ageing population, migration, including, in particular, foreign migration will cause a decline in the labour force. By contrast, the labour supply will depend on an economic factor, that is mainly an improvement in the economic situation in Poland and around the world and a reduction in the cost of labour (external determinants). In the next few years the role of innovation (including the technological factor) which will affect the labour demand in terms of quantity and, perhaps to a greater extent, in terms of quality (changes in the structure of the labour market) will become more and more significant.

Open access

Raj Singh Bhanwar Vishvendra and Anjan Sen

Abstract

In the near future, natural resources are very rapidly diminishing all over the globe. Which is very unhealthy for land ecosystem services. In the biodiversity, Tiger is an icon of healthy wildlife which is considered as a vital factor for maintaining Universal Food Chain System. This research paper is based on “Geo-Spatial Mapping of land use and land cover changes in the Core and Periphery Area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, 1975-2015, it’s a micro level Study based on primary and secondary data through GIS mapping and consider as a Socio-Economic & Physical factors to inter-connect with Tiger habitats. Especially, core and periphery LULC have been obtained from the Multispectral images from ETM and ETM+ sensors of Landsat and LISS-III and AWiFS sensors of Resourcesat-satellites. This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of LULC change along the boundary of Ranthambhore in the Rajasthan from 1975 to 2015. Tiger Landscape change within all ecological zones will be evaluated. The Landsat TM and ETM imagery will be used to produce LULC classification maps for both areas using a hybrid supervised/unsupervised methods. LULC changes are measured using landscape metrics and change maps created by post-classification through change detection. Using all the raster maps and the final change detection of the reserve will be done through spatial analysis using the raster calculator tool in ArcGIS and Erdas and MS Excel 13. The study comes out with land use and land cover change in core and periphery areas of the reserve. The research also describes Human Encroachment, Impact on human colonization, interfere with domestic animals, Interbreeding, and the Migration in core and periphery areas, finally, the situation would be alarming for biodiversity of tiger habitat due to the high pressure of anthropogenic activities.

Open access

Gheorghe Romanescu

Abstract

Deposit salt in Romania has extremely important reserves, considered even inexhaustible at the current exploitation level. The biggest salt resources are found in the intra-Carpathian arch, represented by Transylvania and Maramures. Most sources of salt outcrops are disseminated on the edge of the Transylvania Depression, in the diapir folds formed following salt migration. The salt mines – Turda, Praid, Ocna Mures, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu, Cojocna, Ocna Sugatag – represented an important source of incomes, reason for which important human settlements formed around them. All these localities have turned nowadays into balneal and climacteric resorts that fully use the beneficial effect of the atmosphere within galleries (Praid, Turda). The most important incomes from tourism are represented by the galleries of the mines of Turda (one of the 10 wonders of the modern world) and Praid. The balneal and climacteric resorts also developed around the salt lakes installed in the areas of collapsed mines: Sovata, Ocna Sibiu, Ocna Dej, Cojocna. The most well known human settlements and the most important balneal and climacteric resorts, implicitly, are disseminated on the external branch of the Transylvania Depression (Sovata, Praid, Ocna Mures, Baile Figa, Cojocna thermae, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu) and of the Maramures Depression (Ocna Sugata, Costiui, Vad). The oldest mining exploitation is situated at Figa (county of Bistrita-Nasaud) was founded around the year AD 3000. From this point of view, it is one of the oldest mining exploitations on Earth. The existence of the world-important archaeological site can invigorate the development of the surrounding localities, but mostly of the city of Beclean.

Open access

Barbara Sapek

Abstract

Sorption capacity and the energy of phosphorus adsorption on muck and peat deposits were studied in peat- -muck soil profile from a lowland peatland in the Kuwasy object. Soils of the area are characterised by a laminar structure which results in variable sorption properties of peat deposits of different origin, degree of humification (decomposition - R) and transformation of organic matter of upper muck layers (degree of mucking - Z). There was a relationship between the maximum phosphorus adsorption calculated from the Langmuir isotherm (b) and adsorption energy (k) and the type and degree of humification of peat and transformation of muck mass. Muck deposits of the maximum sorption capacity similar to that of peat deposits bind phosphorus less intensively than peats. One may expect that different sorption capacity and the strength of phosphorus binding will effect in different migration of inorganic and organic P compounds in soil profile and their transfer to ground waters.

Open access

Tomasz Spórna and Monika Kurpanik

Abstract

The Rybnik conurbation is an example of a traditional industrial area, where, due to economic restructuring, social and economic transformations are taking place. It is located in the Silesian voivodeship (southern Poland) and its development is mostly based on intensive coal mining after the Second World War. The article presents selected aspects of social and economic transformation happening in the area of the Rybnik conurbation after 1945 and connected with its rapid economic development in the 1960s and 70s, as well as with the systematic and economic transformation in Poland after 1989. The article was prepared on the base of subject literature, statistics and own studies. Population transformations have been analysed for the period 1980-2010, in each case, in relation to selected administrative units and three zones of the conurbation - the core, the inner and the outer areas. In order to evaluate and compare the demographic situation in the Rybnik conurbation in the years 1988 and 2008, a rank method has been applied. Community classification has been based on the total value of ranks for particular communities for the following variables: birth rate, population growth, net migration rate and the participation of the population in the pre-working and post-working age. The results of population transformation indicate that until 1991, the population of the Rybnik conurbation had been increasing (up to 197.7 thousand people). In the period 1991-2012, it decreased by 26.4 thousand (i.e. by 3.8%). In the same period of time, depopulation took place in the largest mining cities of the conurbation core (Wodzisław Śląski, 56.1%, connected with its administrative division into 4 towns and 1 rural community; Jastrzębie-Zdrój - 12.3%, Żory - 7.8% and Rybnik, to a lesser degree - 2.7%). The rank method that was applied has revealed the worsened demographic condition in the western communes of the conurbation (a shift from weak to bad). Simultaneously, in the period 1990-2012, the population gradually increased in the outer zone of the conurbation, by 6.8%. This indicates the process of suburbanisation taking place in the area. Demographic and economic changes in the Rybnik conurbation after 1989, in comparison to other mining areas in Poland and in Europe, seem to be less intensive.

Open access

Józef Koc, Szymon Kobus and Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk

The significance of oxbow lakes for the ecosystem of afforested river valleys

The interest in significance of forest areas in water quality improvement has been increasing since creation of biogeochemical barriers became effective tools against the input of pollutants to surface water from diffuse sources. Along meandering river valleys, numerous floodplain lakes often appear as valuable water ecosystems but of advanced eutrophy. Their trophic status depends not only on the hydrological connectivity with the river but also land use in the direct vicinity of the reservoir. Research on water ecosystems in the postglacial river valleys in northern Poland contributed to identification of the role of woodland area in pollutants migration in the valley of the łyna River.

The study on the ecosystem concerned seasonal variation in nutrient concentrations (N and P) and bottom sediments properties in relation to hydrological conditions (water level fluctuations). Based on the collected data we attempted prediction of the reservoir lifetime. Depending on hydrological, geological and topographic conditions the origin of water supply of the basin is changing. Annual water level fluctuations in the range of 200 cm cause the basin capacity variation as much as 5 times. Nevertheless, water quality in the lake was conditioned by the riverine supply, the significant share in the lake feeding has groundwater supply from hillslope aquifer and seepage through alluvial aquifer. Contribution of every origin supply depends on river flow rate and valley water level, it depends on alluvial ground formations permeability and relief. Hillslope erosion of the concave bank was responsible for high nitrogen and phosphorus outflows. The research showed that primary and secondary production and freshets contributed to intensive deposition of bottom sediments in oxbow lake. The increase rate of sediment determined on the base of matter balance was 10 times higher than deposition rate of bottom sediments in glacial lakes. The accelerated processes of silting-up and shallowing and terrestialization of the valuable ecosystems indicate the necessity of floodpain lakes protection due to ecological functions they play in forestry landscape.

Open access

Abdelaaziz El-Araby and Ali Faleh

REFERENCES Aït Hamza M. (1999), Socio-spatial mobility and local development in the South of the Moroccan Atlas (Dadès-Toudgha), Ph.D. thesis, FLSH. University of Mohammed V - Agdal, Rabat. Bahani A. et all. (2014), International migration and development-case of the province of Zagora / Morocco-kawtar print-rabat-2014. El-Araby A., (2017), Survey of the field carried out within the framework of the elaboration of a doctoral thesis on the theme: “Emerging Rural Centers, Planning and stakes of territorial development - The case of the province Of

Open access

Gbenga J. Oladehinde, Lasun M. Olayiwola and Kehinde O. Popoola

Capital Territory of Nigeria . University of Jos, Nigeria. Cotula L., Toulmin C. and Quan J. 2006. Better Land Access for the Rural Poor. Lessons from Experience and Challenges Ahead . IIED FAO. ISBN: 1-84369-632-0. Department for International Development (DFID) 2007. Moving out of poverty – making migration work better for poor people. Drechsel P., Dongus S. 2009. Dynamics and sustainability of urban agriculture: examples from sub-Saharan Africa. Integrated research System for Sustainability Science , 5: 69–78. DOI: 10.1007/s11625-009-0097-x

Open access

Arsim Ejupi

, Vital, ethnical and migration features, Book number VI, Belgrade, 1967. Population census 1971, Ethnical features of population, Results by municipalities, Belgrade, 1974. Population census 1991, Population according to national affiliation. Population census 2002, National or ethnical affiliation of population, Book number I, Belgrade, 2003.

Open access

Silviu Costachie

.P., Theodore G.S. (2004), Reconstructing the Origins and Migrations of Diasporic Populations: The Case of the European Gypsies , American Anthropologist, Vol. 106, No. 2 (Jun., 2004). Simhandl K. (2006), Western Gypsies and Travellers – Eastern Roma: the creation of political objects by the institutions of the European Union , Nation and Nationalism Journal, Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2006. http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/Estadisticas/operaciones/con-certificado/index.html http