. Werk 3–4. Feldstein M.S., (2011), Te Euro and European Economic Conditions, NBER Working Paper 17617, Cambridge (http://www.nber.org/papers/w17617.pdf?new_window=1, accessed: 01-08-2013). Gáková Z., Dijkstra L., (2008), Labour mobility between the regions of the EU-27 and a comparison with the USA, “Regional Focus”, Directorate -General for Regional Policy, No. 2. Kaplan G., Schulhofer -Wohl S., (2011), Interstate Migration Has Fallen Less Tan You Tink: Consequences of Hot Deck Imputation in the Current Population Survey, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
References COLLIER, P. (2013) Exodus. How Migration is Changing Our World . Oxford – New York, Oxford University Press, 310 pages, ISBN 978-0-19-539865-6.
Territorial Marketing as a Method of Reduction of Outward Migration
The study considers problems of outward migration of the young population in regard to measures which should be taken by local governments in order to decrease this phenomenon. The author recommends here territorial marketing measures which may effectively restrain unfavorable tendencies. The study presents interesting example of marketing programme aimed at convincing young residents of Łódź not to leave cityafter graduation and to bind their future professional life with the place where they are studying and learning.
The programme has been directed to acquire new students who in future may contribute to the increase of town's attractiveness and development. The first results of evaluation of the programme conducted in 2009 proved that the initiative has been well perceived and was quite popular. Whereas only its further development and stages that will follow will present the answer about its effectiveness.
Jozef Talapka, Ján Hlubík, Patrik Kamencay and Róbert Hudec
The presented article is dealing with the new methods which are designated for data collection of mammals migrating across traffic networks. Nowadays, road construction and securing of older roads is usually accompanied by finding new solutions. Because of lack of collected data we have new opportunities how we can collect this input. The article below describes the most efficient method which is suitable for the model creation, process of creation and issues which are connected with the creation of simulations.
1 Introduction Immigration has been a heavily disputed subject in developed countries for many years, and it became a pivotal one in the last decade. Among questions regarding race, culture or language, economic dimension lately became one of the most frequently discussed. Immigration is alleged to have significant impact on the labour market, real estate prices or industrial output. Additionally, questions about the fiscal effects of migration and its impact on the welfare state appear more often in the policy debate. There are at least three reasons for
Jana Tepperová and Hana Zídková
Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured) persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.
Mladen Rebić, Milica Bojat and Nemanja Šarenac
There is no universal model of local economic development. Development strategies vary from country to country, city to city, and depend on the level of development, political system, development potential, social values, available resources, etc. Republic of Srpska faces with significant differences in the level of development of its territory. Local communities in the Republic of Srpska are increasingly facing with several obligations - providing support to business, creating a favorable business environment for attracting investment and providing an adequate infrastructure. The biggest problems that most of municipalities in the Republic of Srpska encounter are reflected in the emptying of cities, the departure of young people, low average wages and high unemployment rates. They are trying to solve these problems by attracting investments. However, it is very important to say that an effective investment policy must be based on the creation of new enterprises with capitalintensive production. The average wage level in local communities of the Republic of Srpska is low, due to the fact that most of the investments have a labor-intensive character. The subject and aim of this paper is to determine the competitiveness and level of development of local communities in the Republic of Srpska. Municipal competitiveness will be higher if it has a positive trade balance, higher average wages, high natural increase, low unemployment rate and positive migration. Higher natural increase, favorable trade balance and low unemployment rate are in direct correlation with the degree of local development. The results of the research have shown that the key problems of underdeveloped municipalities in the Republic of Srpska are demographic aging, population migration, underdeveloped infrastructure, high unemployment rates, low average wages, low level of investment, low export activity, weak institutional capacities, etc.
The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.
References Acharya, C. P. and Leon-Gonzalez, R. (2012), The impact of remittance on poverty and inequality: A micro-simulation study for Nepal, ‘National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Discussion Paper’, 11-26. Adams, R. H. (2004), Remittances and poverty in Gautemala, ‘World Bank Policy Research Working Paper’, No. 3418. Adams, R. H. and Page, J. (2005), Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?, ‘World Development’, 33(10), 1645-1669. Adams, R. H
Multicountry models were developed in the previous century to serve the analyses and projections of the world economy and/or its regions (for instance Latin America). They distinguish the largest countries and the rest of the world (ROW) composed of particular countries. Hence, their structure is based on the specifications of equations for individual countries using full statistical information available at the countries level. The regional macroeconomic models are built for either administrative or geographical units distinguished within large countries (USA, China, Russia). Their structure should be in principle similar to those of the national economy. However, the statistical information of the regional economies is typically uncomplete: no sufficient information is available on exports and imports of the region, migrations and financial flows. Appropriate approximations are necessary. As in majority of countries the prices and wages movements are in general unified over the country, the variables representing the national level excerpt an impact on the regional variables. The regional impact on the national variables is rather unusual. The paper shows the skeleton model applied in the multicountry models and the skeleton of the macroeconomic regional model. The specific properties of the regional model are discussed and the possibilities of its extensions analysed.