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Haydn Davies

, Investment Treaty Arbitration as a Species of Global Administrative Law , 17 Eur. J. Int’ l 121-50 (2006). As such, both developing and developed states favour investment agreements; developing states, because they facilitate foreign direct investment, and developed states, because they offer an attractive trading platform for private actors - invariably economically important multinational corporations - amongst others, with the introduction of an ISDS mechanism which avoids the diplomatic and political vagaries of state-state settlement‥ However, there are some

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Don Mayer and Adam Sulkowski

:// See also Jonathan O ’ Connell & Mary Jordan, For Foreign Diplomats, Trump Hotel Is Place to Be , Wash. Post Nov. 18, 2016. In being both a tenant and, as President, arguably chief executive of the entity that owns the old Post Office Building on Pennsylvania Avenue, there is a direct conflict of interest between the President’s private interests and compliance with the rule of law; as Judge Messitte notes in his March 2018

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Phoenix X. F. Cai

, rules involving the largest amounts of foreign direct investment, rules involving goods or services contributing significantly to U.S. imports or exports, or all rules that the United States notifies to the WTO’s Technical Barriers to Trade Committee. Using the latter approach, one commentator estimates that of the over 3500 rules the United States issues every year, approximately an average of 20% likely has a significant impact on international trade and investment. Id . at 102-07. Nonetheless, each regulatory agency must undertake its own subjective qualitative

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Stephen R. Tully

increase in medicine prices, and that data protection provisions delayed the introduction of generic equivalents for 79 percent of new medicines. Oxfam International, All Costs, No Benefits: How TRIPS-Plus Intellectual Property Rules in the U.S.-Jordan FTA Affect Access to Medicines , Oxfam Briefing Paper, 2, 15 (2007). The putative benefits of this treaty promoted at the time of its conclusion were not realised: there was no increased foreign direct investment in Jordan’s pharmaceutical industry, greater research and development or swifter introduction of innovative

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Bruce M. Owen

on legislation except through elections or pushback from the other two branches. Regulation that is more direct tends to invade foundational rights that serve important general constitutional purposes. Systemic political corruption is costlier today than in 1788 because the substantive jurisdiction of the federal government is no longer limited. Washington now regulates nearly every form of human interaction, economic and social. This provides a virtually unlimited menu of opportunities for elite interests and political representatives to design mutually

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Peter H. Huang

are investors in human capital by acquiring the skills of legal analysis. More generally, pursuing any professional degree is a form of investment under uncertainty. Many variables are unknown and likely unknowable, such as future market returns of a professional degree. The past is never a guarantee of the future. The market for attorney services is under intense flux and pressure due to increasing automation, domestic and foreign competition from non-lawyers, and technological changes in the delivery of legal services. See, e.g ., Benjamin H. Barton & Stephanos

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Folorunso Sunday Ayadi, Sunday Mlanga, Monday Isaac Ikpor and Robert A. Nnachi

References Aliyu, Mohammed Aminu (2005) Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment: Pollution Haven Hypothesis Revisited. Paper prepared for the Eight Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Liibeck, Germany, June 9-11. Antweiler, W.,Copeland, B. R. and TAYLOR, M. S. (2001) Is Free Trade Good for The Environment? The American Economic Review 91 (4) pp. 877 – 908. Ayadi, F.S. (2005) A Vector Autoregressive Analysis of Trade-Environment Linkage in Nigeria. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development. ( www

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Beáta Udvari and Isaac Kwesi Ampah

References Ács, Z. J., & Szerb, L. (2012). Global entrepreneurship and development index 2012 . Edward Elgar Publishing. Arellano, M., & Bover, O. (1995). Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. Journal of Econometrics , 68 (1), 29-51. Arndt, C., Jones, S., & Tarp, F. (2015). Assessing foreign aid’s long-run contribution to growth and development. World Development , 69 , 6-18. Asiedu, E. (2006). Foreign direct investment in Africa: The role of natural resources, market size, government policy

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Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail and Nedra Nouredeen Jomaa Shili

.” London: Phoenix Zhiyun Zhao and Chaofeng ( 2007), “An Empirical Study of China’s High-Tech Industry Innovation Capability in Transition”, Li, X., Liu, X. and Parker, D (2011), “Foreign Direct Investment and Productivity Spillovers in the Chinese Manufacturing Sector”. Economic Systems, 25: 305-321. Lin Wei, Arnold Chao(1983), China's Economic Reforms". University of Pennsylvania Press. State

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Gabriel Turbay and Giovanni E. Reyes

. British Journal of Political Science , 46 (2), 241-264. Lee, C. K. (2011). The influence on developing countries’ foreign direct investment (FDI) policies imposed by incentives: A game analysis. African Journal of Business Management , 5 (34), 12015. Mandle, J., & Mandle, J. (1999). Elections as a public good. Challenge , 42 (5), 50-62. McDaid, S. (2016). Pragmatists versus dogmatists: Explaining the failure of power-sharing in Northern Ireland during the 1970s. British Politics , 11 (1), 49-71. Mueller, D. C. (2004). Public choice: an