SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn) source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S) source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.
Zohra Nazir Kayani, Mahek Zaheen Butt, Saira Riaz and Shahzad Naseem
NiO nanoparticles were fabricated by sol-gel route using ammonium hydroxide and nickel nitrate as precursors. The NiO nanoparticles were calcinated at 400 °C and 1000 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The structural properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD confirmed the formation of well-crystallized and high purity NiO phase. The XRD showed that the peaks were sharpened and the crystallite size increased as the calcination temperature increased. The average crystallite size ranged from 12 nm to 20 nm, when calcined at temperatures 400 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the chemical composition and confirmed the formation of NiO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles showed paramagnetic behavior.
Afarin Bahrami, Kasra Behzad, Nastaran Faraji and Alireza Kharazmi
This work presents the synthesis of PANI-PVA-ZnS nanocomposite films by gamma irradiation approach. The samples were irradiated with different doses ranging from 10 kGy to 40 kGy. Subsequently, structural, morphological, optical and electrical characteristics of the samples were investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical structure of the samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of nanocomposites. The electronic absorption characteristics of the samples were measured by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AC and DC electrical behaviors of the samples were characterized using LCR meter in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The impedance values of the samples were extracted from Cole-Cole plots and consequently DC conductivity was calculated.
Chitosan has been successfully incorporated as a filler in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) matrix with a combination of plasticizers, namely 1,3-dioxolane (DIOX) and tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME). The composite gel-polymer electrolyte (CGPE) membranes were prepared by solution casting technique in an argon atmosphere. The prepared membranes were subjected to SEM, TG/DTA and FT-IR analyses. A Li/CGPE/Li symmetric cell was assembled and the variation of interfacial resistance was measured as a function of time. The lithium transference number (Li+t) was measured and the value was calculated as 0.6 which is sufficient for battery applications. The electrochemical stability window of the sample was studied by linear sweep voltammetry and the polymer electrolyte was found to be stable up to 5.2 V.
During recent decades, magnetic and semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted significant attention of scientists in various fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Fe3+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to a cubic system and its lattice cell parameters were evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 8 nm. The morphology of prepared samples was analyzed by using SEM and TEM investigations. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in FT-IR spectra. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Fe3+ ions enter the host lattice in octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles revealed UV and blue emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from the emission spectrum of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles.
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate is a popular nonlinear optical crystal used for second harmonic generation efficiency improvement in pump lasers. Due to molecular chirality and zwitterionic structure, amino acids are used to enhance various properties of ADP crystal. The single crystals of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) added with different concentrations (0.3 wt.%, 0.4 wt.% and 0.5 wt.%) of amino acids (L-alanine and L-arginine) impurities were grown using slow evaporation solution growth (SESG) technique at room temperature. To study the structural properties, powder XRD study was carried out which revealed that all the grown crystals have tetragonal structural symmetry. The presence of various functional groups was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The thermal spectra (TGA/DTA/DSC) were recorded for all grown samples to determine their decomposition. Also kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined from the thermal study.
Tomasz Szmechtyk, Natalia Sienkiewicz, Katarzyna Koter, Agnieszka Kobierska and Krzysztof Strzelec
In this study novel transversal pneumatic artificial muscles (TPAM), made from composite – poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix membrane and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) satin reinforcement, are presented. Miniature TPAM consists of a flexible internal braid (IB) reinforcing the membrane and the external braid (EB). EB, with fibers arranged transversely to the IB, is placed laterally. Differently prepared TPAMs were tested for their effectiveness as actuators for robot drive and the PDMS/PET composite suitability was evaluated for applications in human gastrointestinal tract (chemical resistance, thermal characteristic). FT-IR spectra of the composite were compared for study PDMS impregnation process of PET satin and effect of immersion in selected solution. The composite shows outstanding biocompatibility and the muscles have competitive static load characteristics in comparison with other pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM). These results lead to believe, that in the near future painless examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a secure robot will be possible.
G. Bhuvaneswari, L. Guru Prasad and N. Prabhavathi
A triphenylmethane-4-nitroaniline salt has been synthesized and the crystals have been grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown single crystal was investigated by recording the powder XRD, FT-IR spectrum, UV-Vis spectrum, Vickers microhardness test, dielectric measurements and powder SHG. The growth of crystal was confirmed by analyzing the XRD pattern and it was stated that the grown material crystallized in triclinic system. Vibrational peaks of the functional groups existing in the compound were identified. Vickers microhardness studies were carried to measure the mechanical strength. In order to identify the phase transition temperature, the dielectric studies were carried out at different temperatures. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and impedance of the crystal were monitored with respect to the frequency of electric field.
Tomasz Olejnik, Sylwia Pasieczna-Patkowska, Adam Lesiuk and Janusz Ryczkowski
Ordered SBA-15 mesoporous silica supports have been synthesized and used for incorporation of titanium with different Ti/Si weight ratio via incipient wetness impregnation. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used as a source of Ti. Obtained catalysts were characterized to investigate the chemical framework and morphology by nitrogen sorption measurements, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR/PAS). The photocatalytic degradation of phenol and methylene blue water solutions were selected as a probe reactions to the photoactivity test of prepared samples and to verify the potential application of these materials for water purification. Experimental results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of Ti/Si mixed materials depends on the adsorption ability of composites and the photocatalytic activity of the titanium oxide.
Li Wang, Hua-Min Liu, Ai-Jun Xie, Chun-Yan Zhu and Guang-Yong Qin
Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW) from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA) extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB) increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR) decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.