) ; Swinkels (2010) ; Parolini (2009) (see Sections 1.2 and 5 ). In third countries and non-EU European Economic Area (EEA) countries such as Norway, national rules can be framed independently of the EU rules as their fiscal sovereignty is not bound by membership of the EuropeanUnion. Nevertheless, Norway has close ties to the EuropeanUnion under the EEA Agreement (see Section 6 ).
Within the EuropeanUnion and globally, different national VAT grouping schemes can give rise to complex problems relating to tax avoidance and fiscal competition. For example, this can
. 2016 Belgium Inward and Outward Foreign Direct Investment National Bank of Belgium Economic Review Brussels
European Commission, 2016, Taxation Trends in the EuropeanUnion. European Commission 2016 Taxation Trends in the EuropeanUnion
Federal Public Service Finance, 2016, Federal Tax Expenditures Report. Federal Public Service Finance 2016 Federal Tax Expenditures Report
Fuest, C., Peichl, A., and Siegloch, S, 2015, Do Higher Corporate Taxes Reduce Wages? IZA Discussion Paper No. 9606. Fuest C. Peichl A. Siegloch S 2015 Do Higher Corporate Taxes Reduce Wages
of the inherent limitations of the learning process, and the danger that the experience of foreign countries will be applied in a selective manner to support a policy that is desired for other reasons.
Any discussion of Nordic tax policy must take into account the large and (in some cases) growing differences between the individual Nordic countries, which balance and frequently outweigh the similarities between them. The discussion must likewise consider the pressures for conformity to out-side models, such as the EuropeanUnion or the United States, and the
(other opinion, Rendahl (2008) ). There are two reasons for this, both based on the different competences of the EU and the Member States in VAT issues; First, VAT is harmonized by directives, and second, most case law of the EuropeanUnion Court of Justice (CJEU) is preliminary rulings.
When Member States implement directives, they have a certain margin of appreciation, since directives should be implemented in order to achieve their results. Article 288 of the Treaty of the Functioning of the EuropeanUnion (TFEU). National VAT acts are hence in many cases more
see or find.
Regarding our second research question above, we observed what investors look at and what they would like to see included in the tax reporting of companies. Tax reporting has become a very topical theme; during the last few years, a great deal of effort has been made to change the tax reporting practices of MNEs, and many changes have already taken place, for instance, within the EuropeanUnion. There have been stated aims to harmonize, unify, and maintain corporate tax bases, as well as to close the loopholes in tax legislation. See COM (2016) 685
began to establish Danish holding companies with the purpose of avoiding other countries’ dividend taxation.As a consequence, Denmark received criticism internationally, and in a report from the so-called Primarolo-group, the Danish rules on taxation of outbound dividends were listed as contrary to the code of conduct for business taxation ( Council of the EuropeanUnion 1998 ). As a reaction to the criticism, the rules were tightened again in 2001. Cf. SEL 2(1)(c) (Den.), as amended by Law no. 282 of April 25,2001. For more details on the tightening of the rules and
new developments, it seems appropriate to revisit the CFC legislation enacted by the Nordic countries, in order to assess to what extent the current CFC rules in the Nordic countries are in line with the recommendations from the OECD/G20, and to determine whether Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, as member states of the EuropeanUnion, will have to make amendments to their CFC rules if the ATA Directive is adopted in its current form. Norway and Iceland are not members of the EuropeanUnion. Accordingly, EU directives on direct taxation do not apply to Norway and
firms ( Hope et al . 2013 ). This factor can account for a variety of reporting incentives. While there of course are many enormous private corporations, the fact remains that 99 percent of all firms in the EuropeanUnion (EU) are micro, small and mediumsized enterprises. Furthermore, an interesting characteristic of smaller private firms is that they do not always prepare their financial statements themselves. Since many small businesses do not have the know-how or resources needed to produce the financial statements internally, the accounting tasks are instead
of the restriction requirement in its direct tax case law” (EU-domstolens restriktionsprövning i mål om de grundläggande friheterna och direkta skatter ). This book of 355 pages intends to describe what factors may have a potential impact to determine whether or not the prohibition of discrimination under articles 39-67 TFEU may apply. The author writes for an expert audience who is already acquainted with the case law of Court of Justice of the EuropeanUnion (CJEU) on the direct tax cases and the fundamental EU freedoms on the basis of which a series of national
neighbor. Unhappily, it is a fiction.
Undeniably, the Swedish Social-Democrats came to consider small firms and individual entrepreneurs as increasingly marginal agents in the development process. In fact, Anna Hedborg and Rudolf Meidner, the main architects behind the (blue-collar worker) Trade Union Confederation’s (LO) wage-earner fund proposal, Meidner et al. (1975) and Meidner (1978) . simply asserted that self-employment and small firms were of little economic importance ( Hedborg and Meidner (1984) ).
The notion of the economic system promulgated by