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ABSTRACT

Seed priming with gibberellin (GA) enhances seed germination performance; but the quality of primed seeds in aging condition often reduces more than non-primed seeds. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect(s) of heat shock treatments on germination characteristics and enzyme activity of primed mountain rye (Secale montanum) seeds with gibberellin under accelerated aging. Heat shock treatments, can substantially decrease the speed of quality reduction of mountain rye (Secale montanum) primed seeds. In primed seeds with gibberellin, which has non-aged, the highest germination percentage (GP) and normal seedling percentage (NSP) was attained from heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h, also after 3 days aging, it was attained from heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h. After 3 days of aging the highest germination index (GI) was attained from unprimed seeds, but no significant difference with heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h. The minimum means time germination (MTG) was in heat shock treatment at 30°C for 3 h in non-aged seeds. After 3 days of aging, heat shock treatment reduce MTG as compared to the primed seeds. Heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h increased seed vigor index (SVI) as compared to the unprimed and primed seed in non-aged seeds and after 3 days aging. Seedling length (SL) increases with heat shock treatment at 30°C for 4 h in non-aged seeds as compared to the primed and unprimed seeds, but after 3 days of aging heat shock treatment except at 35°C for 3 h and 40°C for 4 h reduced SL as compared to the primed and unprimed seeds. Also, heat shock treatments increase some antioxidant enzymes [Catalase (CAT), Ascorbat peroxidase (APX)].

Abstract

Broccoli sprouts are natural functional foods for cancer prevention because of their high content of glucosinolate and antioxidant. Sprouts and mature broccoli are of potential importance in devising chemoprotective strategies in humans. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of essential oils on broccoli seed germination, increase their antioxidant content and determine the glucosinolate concentration and other phytochemical parameters in 3-day-old sprouts during cold storage at 4°C and 95% RH for 15 days. The results showed that all treatments of essential oils increased germination index, seed germination percentage, seedling length, seedling vigour index, yield and the antioxidant content of broccoli sprout and reduced the microbial load compared to the control. Fortunately, the coliform bacteria was not detected in all treatments. Different essential oils of fennel, caraway, basil, thyme and sage were tested. The thyme oil was the best treatment, which increased the accumulation of the phenolic compounds and glucosinolate compared to the control at different storage periods. In the sprouts treated with thyme oil treatment and the control, at the end of cold storage, 1.98% and 28.06% of total phenolic content, 1.90% and 20.28% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 1.39% and 58.33% of flavonoids, 1.93% and 36.25% of vitamin C, 2.95% and 22.02% of anthocyanin and 2.18% and 49.12% of glucosinolate were lost, respectively. A slight reduction differences in all detected compound concentrations occurred between the initial content and the end of storage period because of the application of thyme oil compared to the control. Therefore, the total glucosinolate level in the sprout (27.02 μg/g F.W.) was higher than that in the florets (7.37 μg/g F.W.). Glucoraphanin was the most abundant aliphatic glucosinolate present in the sprout and reached the highest value (16.24 μg/g F.W.) followed by glucoerucin (5.9 μg/g F.W.) and glucoiberm(1.2 μg/g F.W.).

., 1996 - The effect of sodium chloride on germination and the potassium and calcium content of Acacia seeds. Seed Sci. Technol., 25, 45-57. Sadeghian S.Y., Yavari N., 2004 - Effect of water-deficit stress on germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet. J. Agron. Crop Sci.,190, 138-144. Shivankar R.S., Deore D.B., Zode N.G., 2003 - Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment on establishment and seed yield of sunflower. J. Oilseeds Res., 20, 299-300. Singh B.G., Rao G., 1993 - Effect of chemical soaking of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed on vigour index. Indian J

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measured in terms of the length of the root and shoot. On this basis, all samples were characterized in terms of average root length, average stem length, the average length of seedlings, germination ability, Germination Rate Index (GRI) and vigor index. For the shoot length we obtained 62-68% increase, for root length – 35-44% increase, for seedling length – 47-55% increase, for GRI – 12-20% increase, for germination ability – 3-5% increase, for vigor index – 52- 60% increase in performance compared to the control sample (not subjected to an electromagnetic

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able to produce a magnetic field between 0 and 22 mT. The results showed that germination rate index, vigour index and seed germination was increased after magnetic treatments except variable magnetic field in time of 12 min [2,3]. These studies will be continued with checking of plant genetic modification. For studies related to the influence of magnetic field on human stem cells it was built cell culture incubator with CO2 atmosphere with a built-in generator magnetic and electric fields in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the Faculty of Health