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Congruence between breeding and wintering biodiversity hotspots: A case study in farmlands of Western Poland

Abstract

Farmland landscapes are recognized as important ecosystems, not only for their rich biodiversity but equally so for the human beings who live and work in these places. However, biodiversity varies among sites (spatial change) and among seasons (temporal change). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that bird diversity hotspots distribution for breeding is congruent with bird diversity hotspots for wintering season, focusing also the representation of protected areas for the conservation of local hotspots. We proposed a framework based on the use of species richness, functional diversity, and evolutionary distinctiveness to characterize avian communities.

Although our findings show that the spatial distribution of local bird hotspots differed slightly between seasons, the protected areas’ representation was similar in both seasons. Protected areas covered 65% of the most important zones for breeding and 71% for the wintering season in the farmland studied. Functional diversity showed similar patterns as did bird species richness, but this measure can be most effective for highlighting differences on bird community composition. Evolutionary distinctiveness was less congruent with species richness and functional diversity, among seasons.

Our findings suggest that inter-seasonal spatial congruence of local hotspots can be considered as suitable areas upon which to concentrate greater conservation efforts. However, even considering the relative congruence of avian diversity metrics at a local spatial scale, simultaneous analysis of protected areas while inter-seasonally considering hotspots, can provide a more complete representation of ecosystems for assessing the conservation status and designating priority areas.

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Effects of cold winters and roost site stability on population development of non-native Asian ring-necked parakeets (Alexandrinus manillensis) in temperate Central Europe – results of a 16-year census

Abstract

Asian ring-necked parakeets (Alexandrinus manillensis, formerly Psittacula krameri, hereafter RNP) first bred in Germany in 1969. Since then, RNP numbers increased in all three major German subpopulations (Rhineland, Rhine-Main, Rhine-Neckar) over the period 2003-2018. In the Rhine-Neckar region, the population increased to more than fivefold within only 15 years. Interestingly, there was no significant breeding range expansion of RNP in the period 2010-2018. In 2018, the total number of RNP in Germany amounted to >16,200 birds. Differences in RNP censuses between years were evident. Surprisingly, cold winters (extreme value, −13.7 °C) and cold weather conditions in the breeding season (coldest month average, −1.36 °C) were not able to explain between-year variation. This finding suggests that in general winter mortality is low - with exceptions for winters 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and a population-relevant loss of broods is low in our study population. Surprisingly, the social behaviour in terms of spatio-temporal stability of roost sites could well explain positive and negative population trends. Years of spatially stable and regularly used roost sites seem to correlate with increasing population sizes. In contrast, known shifts of RNP among different roost sites or the formations of new roost sites by split are related to population stagnation or a decrease in numbers. Climate change may lead to further range expansion as cities not suitable yet for RNP may become so in the near future.”

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Are there sex differences in the body size of the Eurasian red squirrel in Slovakia?

dimorphism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 16-26. Lurz, P.W., Garson, P.J. & Wauters, L.A. (2000) Effects of temporal and spatial variations in food supply on the space and habitat use of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L.). J. Zool., 251, 167-178. Lurz, P.W.W., Gurnell, J. & Magris, L. (2005) Sciurus vulgaris. Mammalian Species., 769, 1-10. Matějů, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2012) Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality. Front. Zool., 10, 1-10. McPehrson, F.J. & Chenoweth, P.J. (2012

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Social dominance and wheel running in females of Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

. Anim. Behav. Sci., 95, 199-203. Howerton, C.L., Garner, J.P. & Mench, J.A. (2008) Effects of a running wheel-igloo enrichment on aggression, hierarchy linearity, and stereotypy in group-housed male CD-1 (ICR) mice. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 115, 90-103. Howerton, C.L. & Mench, J.A. (2014) Running around the clock: competition, aggression and temporal partitioning of running wheel use in male mice. Anim. Behav., 90, 221-227. Mason, G. & Würbel, H. (2016) What can be learnt from wheel-running by wild mice, and how can we

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Estimation of biomass density and carbon storage in the forests of Andhra Pradesh, India, with emphasis on their deforestation and degradation conditions

) Carbon sequestration potential of Indian forests. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 60, 315-27. Malhi, Y., Meir, P. & Brown, S. (2002) Forests, carbon and global climate. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 360, 1567-1591. Manhas, R.K., Negi, J.D.S., Rajesh K. & Chauhan P.S. (2006) Temporal Assessment of Growing Stock, Biomass and Carbon Stock of Indian Forests. Climatic Change (2006) 74, 191-221. Manhas, R.K., Negi, J.D.S., Rajesh, K. & Chauhan, P.S. (2006) Temporal assessment of growing stock, biomass and carbon stock of Indian forests. Climatic Change, 74, 191

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Sympatric song variant in mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli does not reduce aggression from black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus

, L.M. (2004) Overlapping and matching in the song contests of black-capped chickadees. Animal Behaviour, 67, 441–450. Otter, K.A., Ratcliffe, L.M., Njegovan, M. & Fotheringham, J. (2002) Importance of frequency and temporal song matching in black-capped chickadees: evidence from interactive playback. Ethology, 108, 181–191 Ratcliffe, L. & Otter, K.A. (1996) Ecology and evolution of acoustic communication in birds. Kroodsma, D.E., Miller, E.H., editors. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates, 339–355. R Core Team (2016) R: A language and

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New records of invasive Parakeet hybrids in Spain. A great opportunity to apply the rapid response mechanism

References Abellán, P., Carrete, M., Anadón, J.D., Cardador, L. & Tella, J.L. (2015) Non‐random patterns and temporal trends (1912–2012) in the transport, introduction and establishment of exotic birds in Spain and Portugal. Diversity and Distributions, 22, 263–273 Ancillotto, L., Strubbe, D., Menchetti, M. & Mori, E. (2016) An overlooked invader? Ecological niche, invasion success and range dynamics of the Alexandrine parakeet in the invaded range. Biological Invasions, 18, 583–595 Arndt, T. & Pittman, A.J. (1996) Lexicon of Parrots. Arndt

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Guided by the light: Roost choice and behaviour of urban Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus)

Lorikeets, Trichoglossus haematodus : assessing functional explanations. B.Sc. Honours thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. Davies, A., Taylor, C. & Major, R. (2011) Do fire and rainfall drive spatial and temporal population shifts in parrots? A case study using urban parrot populations. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100, 295–301. Everding, S. & Jones, D. (2006) Communal roosting in a suburban population of torresian crows ( Corvus orru ). Landscape and Urban Planning, 74, 21–33. Fitzsimons, J., Palmer, G., Antos, M. & White, J. (2003

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Urbanization and species occupancy frequency distribution patterns in core zone areas of European towns

for urban ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 660–661. Clergeau, P., Jokimäki, J. & Savard, J.P. (2001) Are urban bird communities influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes? Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 1122–1134. Collins, S.L. & Glenn, S.M. (1991) Importance of spatial and temporal dynamics in species regional abundance and distribution. Ecology, 72, 654–664. Collins, S. & Glenn, S.M. (1997) Effects of organismal and distance scaling on analysis of species distribution and abundance. Ecological Applications, 7, 543–551. Conole, L

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To what degree are philosophy and the ecological niche concept necessary in the ecological theory and conservation?

. Eustatius. Ecology, 66, 129-141. Pedruski, M.T., Fussmann, G.F. & Gonzalez, A. (2016) A network approach reveals surprises about the history of the niche. Ecosphere, 7, 1-12. Pickett, S.T.W, Kolassa, J. & Jones, C.V. (2007) Ecological Understanding the nature of theory and the theory of nature. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Quintero, I. & Wiens, J. (2013) What determines the climatic niche width of species? The role of spatial and temporal climatic variation in three vertebrate clades. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 422

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