Federico Morelli, Zbigniew Kwieciński, Piotr Indykiewicz, Łukasz Jankowiak, Paweł Szymański, Petra Šímová and Piotr Tryjanowski
Farmland landscapes are recognized as important ecosystems, not only for their rich biodiversity but equally so for the human beings who live and work in these places. However, biodiversity varies among sites (spatial change) and among seasons (temporal change). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that bird diversity hotspots distribution for breeding is congruent with bird diversity hotspots for wintering season, focusing also the representation of protected areas for the conservation of local hotspots. We proposed a framework based on the use of species richness, functional diversity, and evolutionary distinctiveness to characterize avian communities.
Although our findings show that the spatial distribution of local bird hotspots differed slightly between seasons, the protected areas’ representation was similar in both seasons. Protected areas covered 65% of the most important zones for breeding and 71% for the wintering season in the farmland studied. Functional diversity showed similar patterns as did bird species richness, but this measure can be most effective for highlighting differences on bird community composition. Evolutionary distinctiveness was less congruent with species richness and functional diversity, among seasons.
Our findings suggest that inter-seasonal spatial congruence of local hotspots can be considered as suitable areas upon which to concentrate greater conservation efforts. However, even considering the relative congruence of avian diversity metrics at a local spatial scale, simultaneous analysis of protected areas while inter-seasonally considering hotspots, can provide a more complete representation of ecosystems for assessing the conservation status and designating priority areas.
Michael P. Braun, Nicole Braun, Detlev Franz, Bernadette Groß, Wolfgang Dreyer, Silke Laucht, Steven Kragten, Liviu G. Pârâu, Esther Koch, Darius Stiels, Kathrin Schidelko, Sven Nekum, Claus Walter, Jana Romero, Achim Kemper, Markus Hubatsch, Tobias Krause, Simon Bruslund, Nicole Bruslund, Mirjam I. Reinke-Beck, Andreas Bauer, Philipp Kremer, Markus S. Braun, Hedwig Sauer-Gürth and Michael Wink
Asian ring-necked parakeets (Alexandrinus manillensis, formerly Psittacula krameri, hereafter RNP) first bred in Germany in 1969. Since then, RNP numbers increased in all three major German subpopulations (Rhineland, Rhine-Main, Rhine-Neckar) over the period 2003-2018. In the Rhine-Neckar region, the population increased to more than fivefold within only 15 years. Interestingly, there was no significant breeding range expansion of RNP in the period 2010-2018. In 2018, the total number of RNP in Germany amounted to >16,200 birds. Differences in RNP censuses between years were evident. Surprisingly, cold winters (extreme value, −13.7 °C) and cold weather conditions in the breeding season (coldest month average, −1.36 °C) were not able to explain between-year variation. This finding suggests that in general winter mortality is low - with exceptions for winters 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and a population-relevant loss of broods is low in our study population. Surprisingly, the social behaviour in terms of spatio-temporal stability of roost sites could well explain positive and negative population trends. Years of spatially stable and regularly used roost sites seem to correlate with increasing population sizes. In contrast, known shifts of RNP among different roost sites or the formations of new roost sites by split are related to population stagnation or a decrease in numbers. Climate change may lead to further range expansion as cities not suitable yet for RNP may become so in the near future.”
Alexander Čanády, Ladislav Mošanský and Peter Krišovský
dimorphism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.
Lurz, P.W., Garson, P.J. & Wauters, L.A. (2000) Effects of temporal and
spatial variations in food supply on the space and habitat use of
red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L.). J. Zool., 251, 167-178.
Lurz, P.W.W., Gurnell, J. & Magris, L. (2005) Sciurus vulgaris. Mammalian
Species., 769, 1-10.
Matějů, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2012) Sexual size dimorphism in ground
squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate
with body size and sociality. Front. Zool., 10, 1-10.
McPehrson, F.J. & Chenoweth, P.J. (2012
. Anim. Behav. Sci., 95, 199-203.
Howerton, C.L., Garner, J.P. & Mench, J.A. (2008) Effects of a running wheel-igloo enrichment on aggression, hierarchy linearity, and stereotypy in group-housed male CD-1 (ICR) mice. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 115, 90-103.
Howerton, C.L. & Mench, J.A. (2014) Running around the clock: competition, aggression and temporal partitioning of running wheel use in male mice. Anim. Behav., 90, 221-227.
Mason, G. & Würbel, H. (2016) What can be learnt from wheel-running by wild mice, and how can we
) Carbon sequestration potential of Indian forests.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 60, 315-27.
Malhi, Y., Meir, P. & Brown, S. (2002) Forests, carbon and global climate.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 360, 1567-1591.
Manhas, R.K., Negi, J.D.S., Rajesh K. & Chauhan P.S. (2006) Temporal Assessment
of Growing Stock, Biomass and Carbon Stock of Indian
Forests. Climatic Change (2006) 74, 191-221.
Manhas, R.K., Negi, J.D.S., Rajesh, K. & Chauhan, P.S. (2006) Temporal
assessment of growing stock, biomass and carbon stock of Indian
forests. Climatic Change, 74, 191
Cara L. Snell, Stefanie E. LaZerte, Matthew W. Reudink and Ken A. Otter
, L.M. (2004) Overlapping and matching in the song contests of black-capped chickadees. Animal Behaviour, 67, 441–450.
Otter, K.A., Ratcliffe, L.M., Njegovan, M. & Fotheringham, J. (2002) Importance of frequency and temporal song matching in black-capped chickadees: evidence from interactive playback. Ethology, 108, 181–191
Ratcliffe, L. & Otter, K.A. (1996) Ecology and evolution of acoustic communication in birds. Kroodsma, D.E., Miller, E.H., editors. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates, 339–355.
R Core Team (2016) R: A language and
Abellán, P., Carrete, M., Anadón, J.D., Cardador, L. & Tella, J.L. (2015)
Non‐random patterns and temporal trends (1912–2012) in the
transport, introduction and establishment of exotic birds in
Spain and Portugal. Diversity and Distributions, 22, 263–273
Ancillotto, L., Strubbe, D., Menchetti, M. & Mori, E. (2016) An overlooked
invader? Ecological niche, invasion success and range
dynamics of the Alexandrine parakeet in the invaded range. Biological
Invasions, 18, 583–595
Arndt, T. & Pittman, A.J. (1996) Lexicon of Parrots. Arndt
Lorikeets, Trichoglossus haematodus : assessing functional explanations. B.Sc. Honours thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Davies, A., Taylor, C. & Major, R. (2011) Do fire and rainfall drive spatial and temporal population shifts in parrots? A case study using urban parrot populations. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100, 295–301.
Everding, S. & Jones, D. (2006) Communal roosting in a suburban population of torresian crows ( Corvus orru ). Landscape and Urban Planning, 74, 21–33.
Fitzsimons, J., Palmer, G., Antos, M. & White, J. (2003
Jukka Jokimäki, Jukka Suhonen and Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki
urban ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 660–661.
Clergeau, P., Jokimäki, J. & Savard, J.P. (2001) Are urban bird communities
influenced by the bird diversity of adjacent landscapes?
Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 1122–1134.
Collins, S.L. & Glenn, S.M. (1991) Importance of spatial and temporal
dynamics in species regional abundance and distribution. Ecology,
Collins, S. & Glenn, S.M. (1997) Effects of organismal and distance scaling
on analysis of species distribution and abundance. Ecological
Applications, 7, 543–551.
. Eustatius. Ecology, 66, 129-141.
Pedruski, M.T., Fussmann, G.F. & Gonzalez, A. (2016) A network approach reveals surprises about the history of the niche. Ecosphere, 7, 1-12.
Pickett, S.T.W, Kolassa, J. & Jones, C.V. (2007) Ecological Understanding the nature of theory and the theory of nature. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Quintero, I. & Wiens, J. (2013) What determines the climatic niche width of species? The role of spatial and temporal climatic variation in three vertebrate clades. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 422