Sanduni Y. Ratnayake, Anoma K. Ratnayake, Dieter Schild, Edward Maczka, Elzbieta Jartych, Johannes Luetzenkirchen, Marek Kosmulski and Rohan Weerasooriya
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Yashashri Patil, S. Khirwadkar, S. M. Belsare, Rajamannar Swamy, M. S. Khan, S. Tripathi and K. Bhope
Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT), September 16–20, 1996 (pp. 443–446). Lisbonne.
10. Durocher, A., Escourbiac, F., Richou, M., Vignal, N., Merola, M., Riccardi, B., Cantone, V., & Constans, S. (2009). Infrared thermography inspection of the ITER vertical target qualification prototypes manufactured by European industry using SATIR. Fusion Eng. Des ., 84 , 314–318.
Bożena Malesa, Anna Antolak-Dudka, Dariusz Oleszak and Tomasz Pikula
(BiFeO3)1-x-(BaTiO3)x solid solutions with x = 0.1–0.4 and 0.7 were investigated. The ceramics were prepared by mechanical activation technology and subsequent heat treatment. As was proved by X-ray diffraction, increase of BaTiO3 concentration causes a change in the crystalline structure from the rhombohedral structure characteristic of BiFeO3 to a cubic one. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed observation of a gradual transformation from an ordered spin structure of Fe3+ ions to the paramagnetic state with an increase of x.
Ivan O. Misiruk, Oleksandr I. Timoshenko, Valeriy S. Taran and Igor E. Garkusha
The paper discusses plasma methods for surface modification using the non-self-sustained glow discharge with a hollow anode. This discharge is characterised by low voltage and high values of electron and ion currents. It can be easily excited in vacuum-arc installations that are widely used for coatings deposition. It is shown that such type of discharge may be effectively used for ion pumping, film deposition, ion etching, diffusion saturation of metallic materials, fusion and brazing of metals, and for combined application of above mentioned technologies in a single vacuum cycle.
Jerzy Cetnar, Grażyna Domańska, Paweł Gajda and Jerzy Janczyszyn
The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of spent nuclear fuel is an important field of present development of nuclear energy technologies. One of the possible ways to carry out the P&T process is to use the accelerator driven systems (ADS). This technology has been developed within the EURATOM Framework Programmes for several years now. Current research in this field is carried out within the scope of 7th FP project FREYA. Important parts of the project are experiments performed in the GUINEVERE facility devoted to characterising the subcritical core kinetics and development of reactivity monitoring techniques. The present paper considers the effects of control rods use on the core reactivity. In order to carry out the evaluation of the experimental results, it is important to have detailed core characteristics at hand and to take into consideration the differences in the effect of control rods acting separately or together (the so-called shadow effect) on both the reactivity value and the measured neutron flux. Also any core asymmetry should be revealed. This goal was achieved by both MCNP simulations and the experimental results. However, in the case of experimental results, the need for calculating respective correction factors was unavoidable.
The conceptual design activities for the DEMOnstration reactor (DEMO) – the prototype fusion power plant – are conducted in Europe by the EUROfusion Consortium. In 2015, three design concepts of the DEMO toroidal field (TF) coil were proposed by Swiss Plasma Center (EPFL-SPC, PSI Villigen), Italian National Agency for New Technologies (ENEA Frascati), and Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA Cadarache). The proposed conductor designs were subjected to complete mechanical, electromagnetic, and thermal-hydraulic analyses. The present study is focused on the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the candidate conductor designs using simplified models. It includes (a) hydraulic analysis, (b) heat removal analysis, and (c) assessment of the maximum temperature and the maximum pressure in each conductor during quench. The performed analysis, aimed at verification whether the proposed design concepts fulfil the established acceptance criteria, provides the information for further improvements of the coil and conductors design.
Maryna S. Ladygina, Elzbieta Skladnik-Sadowska, Dobromil R. Zaloga, Marek J. Sadowski, Monika Kubkowska, Ewa Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Natalia Krawczyk, Marian Paduch, Ryszard Miklaszewski and Igor E. Garkusha
This paper presents results of experimental studies of tungsten samples of 99.95% purity, which were irradiated by intense plasma-ion streams. The behaviour of tungsten, and particularly its structural change induced by high plasma loads, is of great importance for fusion technology. The reported measurements were performed within a modified PF-1000U plasma-focus facility operated at the IFPiLM in Warsaw, Poland. The working gas was pure deuterium. In order to determine the main plasma parameters and to study the behaviour of impurities at different instants of the plasma discharge, the optical emission spectroscopy was used. The dependence of plasma parameters on the initial charging voltage (16, 19 and 21 kV) was studied. Detailed optical measurements were performed during interactions of a plasma stream with the tungsten samples placed at the z-axis of the facility, at a distance of 6 cm from the electrode outlets. The recorded spectra showed distinct WI and WII spectral lines. Investigation of a target surface morphology, after its irradiation by intense plasma streams, was performed by means of an optical microscope. The observations revealed that some amounts of the electrodes material (mainly copper) were deposited upon the irradiated sample surface. In all the cases, melted zones were observed upon the irradiated target surface, and in experiments performed at the highest charging voltage there were formed some cracks.
This study deals with numerical modeling of passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiners (PARs). Such devices are installed within containments of many nuclear reactors in order to remove hydrogen and convert it to steam. The main purpose of this work is to develop a numerical model of passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-FLUENT and tuning the model using experimental results. The REKO 3 experiment was used for this purpose. Experiment was made in the Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology in Julich (Germany). It has been performed for different hydrogen concentrations, different flow rates, the presence of steam, and different initial temperatures of the inlet mixture. The model of this experimental recombiner was elaborated within the framework of this work. The influence of mesh, gas thermal conductivity coefficient, mass diffusivity coefficients, and turbulence model was investigated. The best results with a good agreement with REKO 3 data were received for k-ɛ model of turbulence, gas thermal conductivity dependent on the temperature and mass diffusivity coefficients taken from CHEMKIN program. The validated model of the PAR was next implemented into simple two-dimensional simulations of hydrogen behavior within a subcompartment of a containment building.
Anna Kowalik, Weronika Jackowiak, Julian Malicki, Małgorzata Skórska, Marta Adamczyk, Ewelina Konstanty, Tomasz Piotrowski and Kinga Polaczek-Grelik
Introduction. The rapid development of new radiotherapy technologies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or tomotherapy, has resulted in the capacity to deliver a more homogenous dose in the target. However, the higher doses associated with these techniques are a reason for concern because they may increase the dose outside the target. In the present study, we compared 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy to assess the doses to organs at risk (OARs) resulting from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons.
Material and methods. The doses to OARs outside the target were measured in an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom using thermoluminescence detectors (TLD 100) 6Li (7.5%) and 7Li (92.5%). The neutron fluence rate [cm−2·s−1] at chosen points inside the phantom was measured with gold foils (0.5 cm diameter, mean surface density of 0.108 g/cm3).
Results. The doses [Gy] delivered to the OARs for 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy respectively, were as follows: thyroid gland (0.62 ± 0.001 vs. 2.88 ± 0.004 vs. 0.58 ± 0.003); lung (0.99 ± 0.003 vs. 4.78 ± 0.006 vs. 0.67 ± 0.003); bladder (80.61 ± 0.054 vs. 53.75 ± 0.070 vs. 34.71 ± 0.059); and testes (4.38 ± 0.017 vs. 6.48 ± 0.013 vs. 4.39 ± 0.020). The neutron dose from 20 MV X-ray beam accounted for 0.5% of the therapeutic dose prescribed in the PTV. The further from the field edge the higher the contribution of this secondary radiation dose (from 8% to ~45%).
Conclusion. For tomotherapy, all OARs outside the therapeutic field are well-spared. In contrast, IMRT achieved better sparing than 3DCRT only in the bladder. The photoneutron dose from the use of high-energy X-ray beam constituted a notable portion (0.5%) of the therapeutic dose prescribed to the PTV.
Dominik Grządziel, Krzysztof Kozak, Jadwiga Mazur, Bernard Połednik, Marzenna R. Dudzińska and Izabela Bilska
Most people spend the majority of their time in indoor environments where the level of harmful pollutants is often significantly higher than outdoors. Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the example of radioactive pollutants. These radioisotopes are the main source of ionizing radiation in non-industrial buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air-conditioning system on radon and its progeny concentrations and thus on the effective dose. The measurements were carried out in the auditorium at the Environmental Engineering Faculty (Lublin University of Technology, Poland). Measurements of radon and its progeny (in attached and unattached fractions) as well as measurements of the following indoor air parameters were performed in two air-conditioning (AC) operation modes: AC ON and AC ON/OFF. The air supply rate and air recirculation were taken into consideration. The separation of radon progeny into attached and unattached fractions allowed for determining, respectively, the dose conversion factor (DCF) and the inhalation dose for teachers and students in the auditorium. A considerable increase of the mean radon progeny concentrations from 1.2 Bq/m3 to 5.0 Bq/m3 was observed in the AC ON/OFF mode compared to the AC ON mode. This also resulted in the increase of the inhalation dose from 0.005 mSv/y to 0.016 mSv/y (for 200 h/year). Furthermore, the change of the air recirculation rate from 0% to 80% resulted in a decrease of the mean radon concentration from 30 Bq/m3 to 12 Bq/m3 and the reduction of the mean radon progeny concentration from 1.4 Bq/m3 to 0.8 Bq/m3. This resulted in the reduction of the inhalation dose from 0.006 mSv/y to 0.003 mSv/y.